Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of genitmedLink to Publisher's site
Genitourin Med. 1994 June; 70(3): 208–214.
PMCID: PMC1195233

Sexually transmitted diseases in children: non viral including bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella vaginalis, mycoplasmas, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, scabies and pubic lice.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • LANG WR. Premenarchal vaginitis. Obstet Gynecol. 1959 Jun;13(6):723–729. [PubMed]
  • Hammerschlag MR, Alpert S, Rosner I, Thurston P, Semine D, McComb D, McCormack WM. Microbiology of the vagina in children: normal and potentially pathogenic organisms. Pediatrics. 1978 Jul;62(1):57–62. [PubMed]
  • Heller RH, Joseph JM, Davis HJ. Vulvovaginitis in the premenarcheal child. J Pediatr. 1969 Mar;74(3):370–377. [PubMed]
  • Paradise JE, Campos JM, Friedman HM, Frishmuth G. Vulvovaginitis in premenarcheal girls: clinical features and diagnostic evaluation. Pediatrics. 1982 Aug;70(2):193–198. [PubMed]
  • Hammerschlag MR, Cummings M, Doraiswamy B, Cox P, McCormack WM. Nonspecific vaginitis following sexual abuse in children. Pediatrics. 1985 Jun;75(6):1028–1031. [PubMed]
  • Hammerschlag MR, Doraiswamy B, Cox P, Cummings M, McCormack WM. Colonization of sexually abused children with genital mycoplasmas. Sex Transm Dis. 1987 Jan-Mar;14(1):23–25. [PubMed]
  • Shafer MA, Sweet RL, Ohm-Smith MJ, Shalwitz J, Beck A, Schachter J. Microbiology of the lower genital tract in postmenarchal adolescent girls: differences by sexual activity, contraception, and presence of nonspecific vaginitis. J Pediatr. 1985 Dec;107(6):974–981. [PubMed]
  • White ST, Loda FA, Ingram DL, Pearson A. Sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children. Pediatrics. 1983 Jul;72(1):16–21. [PubMed]
  • Gerstner GJ, Grünberger W, Boschitsch E, Rotter M. Vaginal organisms in prepubertal children with and without vulvovaginitis. A vaginoscopic study. Arch Gynecol. 1982;231(3):247–252. [PubMed]
  • Emans SJ. Vulvovaginitis in the child and adolescent. Pediatr Rev. 1986 Jul;8(1):12–19. [PubMed]
  • Gardner JJ. Comparison of the vaginal flora in sexually abused and nonabused girls. J Pediatr. 1992 Jun;120(6):872–877. [PubMed]
  • Hammerschlag MR, Baker CJ, Alpert S, Kasper DL, Rosner I, Thurston P, Webb BJ, McCormack WM. Colonization with group B streptococci in girls under 16 years of age. Pediatrics. 1977 Oct;60(4):473–476. [PubMed]
  • GARDNER HL, DUKES CD. Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis: a newly defined specific infection previously classified non-specific vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1955 May;69(5):962–976. [PubMed]
  • Holmes KK, Spiegel C, Amsel AR, Eschenbach DA, Chen KC, Totten P. Nonspecific vaginosis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1981;26:110–114. [PubMed]
  • Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, Chen KC, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK. Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med. 1983 Jan;74(1):14–22. [PubMed]
  • McCormack WM, Hayes CH, Rosner B, Evrard JR, Crockett VA, Alpert S, Zinner SH. Vaginal colonization with Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis). J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136(6):740–745. [PubMed]
  • Totten PA, Amsel R, Hale J, Piot P, Holmes KK. Selective differential human blood bilayer media for isolation of Gardnerella (Haemophilus) vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jan;15(1):141–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eschenbach DA, Hillier S, Critchlow C, Stevens C, DeRouen T, Holmes KK. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Apr;158(4):819–828. [PubMed]
  • Carney FE. Hemophilus vaginalis septicemia. Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Jan;41(1):78–79. [PubMed]
  • Furman LM. Neonatal Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Dec;7(12):890–890. [PubMed]
  • Rempen A, Martius J, Hartmann AA, Wecker I. Transmission rate of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, B-streptococci, Candida spp. and Chlamydia trachomatis from the mother to the newborn. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1987;241(3):165–170. [PubMed]
  • De Jong AR. Vaginitis due to Gardnerella vaginalis and to Candida albicans in sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl. 1985;9(1):27–29. [PubMed]
  • Bartley DL, Morgan L, Rimsza ME. Gardnerella vaginalis in prepubertal girls. Am J Dis Child. 1987 Sep;141(9):1014–1017. [PubMed]
  • Frau LM, Alexander ER. Public health implications of sexually transmitted diseases in pediatric practice. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1985 Sep-Oct;4(5):453–467. [PubMed]
  • Ingram DL, White ST, Lyna PR, Crews KF, Schmid JE, Everett VD, Koch GG. Gardnerella vaginalis infection and sexual contact in female children. Child Abuse Negl. 1992 Nov-Dec;16(6):847–853. [PubMed]
  • Holst E. Reservoir of four organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis suggests lack of sexual transmission. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep;28(9):2035–2039. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bump RC, Buesching WJ., 3rd Bacterial vaginosis in virginal and sexually active adolescent females: evidence against exclusive sexual transmission. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Apr;158(4):935–939. [PubMed]
  • Hammerschlag MR, Doraiswamy B, Alexander ER, Cox P, Price W, Gleyzer A. Are rectogenital chlamydial infections a marker of sexual abuse in children? Pediatr Infect Dis. 1984 Mar-Apr;3(2):100–104. [PubMed]
  • Pokorny SF. Child abuse and infections. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1989 Jun;16(2):401–415. [PubMed]
  • Taylor-Robinson D, McCormack WM. The genital mycoplasmas (first of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1980 May 1;302(18):1003–1010. [PubMed]
  • Ingram DL, White ST, Lyna P, Crews KF, Schmid JE, Koch GG, Everett VD. Ureaplasma urealyticum and large colony mycoplasma colonization in female children and its relationship to sexual contact, age, and race. Child Abuse Negl. 1992;16(2):265–272. [PubMed]
  • Mårdh PA, Weström L. T-mycoplasmas in the genito-urinary tract of the female. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand B Microbiol Immunol. 1970;78(3):367–374. [PubMed]
  • Iwasaka T, Wada T, Kidera Y, Sugimori H. Hormonal status and mycoplasma colonization in the female genital tract. Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Aug;68(2):263–266. [PubMed]
  • Foy HM, Kenny GE, Levinsohn EM, Grayston JT. Acquisition of mycoplasmata and T-strains during infancy. J Infect Dis. 1970 Jun;121(6):579–587. [PubMed]
  • Waites KB, Brown MB, Stagno S, Schachter J, Greenberg S, Hemstreet GP, Cassell GH. Association of genital mycoplasmas with exudative vaginitis in a 10 year old: a case of misdiagnosis. Pediatrics. 1983 Feb;71(2):250–252. [PubMed]
  • McCormack WM, Almeida PC, Bailey PE, Grady EM, Lee YH. Sexual activity and vaginal colonization with genital mycoplasmas. JAMA. 1972 Sep 18;221(12):1375–1377. [PubMed]
  • WHITTINGTON MJ. Epidemiology of infections with Trichomonas vaginalis in the light of improved diagnostic methods. Br J Vener Dis. 1957 Jun;33(2):80–91. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Neinstein LS, Goldenring J, Carpenter S. Nonsexual transmission of sexually transmitted diseases: an infrequent occurrence. Pediatrics. 1984 Jul;74(1):67–76. [PubMed]
  • Jones JG, Yamauchi T, Lambert B. Trichomonas vaginalis infestation in sexually abused girls. Am J Dis Child. 1985 Aug;139(8):846–847. [PubMed]
  • CATTERALL RD, NICOL CS. Is trichomonal infestation a veneral disease? Br Med J. 1960 Apr 16;1(5180):1177–1179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elvik SL. Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal girl. J Pediatr Health Care. 1990 Jul-Aug;4(4):181–185. [PubMed]
  • FEO LG. The incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in the various age groups. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1956 Sep;5(5):786–790. [PubMed]
  • Hiemstra I, Van Bel F, Berger HM. Can Trichomonas vaginalis cause pneumonia in newborn babies? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984 Aug 11;289(6441):355–356. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harper JR. Trichomonas vaginalis urinary infection in a boy. Proc R Soc Med. 1967 Sep;60(9):897–897. [PubMed]
  • Lossick JG. The diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis. JAMA. 1988 Feb 26;259(8):1230–1230. [PubMed]
  • Davidson F. Yeasts and circumcision in the male. Br J Vener Dis. 1977 Apr;53(2):121–122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce AM, Hart CA. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Apr;67(4):509–512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dixon PN, Warin RP, English MP. Alimentary Candida albicans and napkin rashes. Br J Dermatol. 1972 May;86(5):458–462. [PubMed]
  • Church RE, Knowelden J. Scabies in Sheffield: a family infestation. Br Med J. 1978 Mar 25;1(6115):761–763. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arlian LG, Runyan RA, Achar S, Estes SA. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984 Aug;11(2 Pt 1):210–215. [PubMed]
  • Arlian LG, Estes SA, Vyszenski-Moher DL. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei in the homes and nursing homes of scabietic patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Nov;19(5 Pt 1):806–811. [PubMed]
  • Orkin M, Maibach HI. Current concepts in parasitology. This scabies pandemic. N Engl J Med. 1978 Mar 2;298(9):496–498. [PubMed]
  • Robinson R. Fight the mite, and ditch the itch. Parasitol Today. 1985 Nov;1(5):140–142. [PubMed]
  • Burns BR, Lampe RM, Hansen GH. Neonatal scabies. Am J Dis Child. 1979 Oct;133(10):1031–1034. [PubMed]
  • Hurwitz S. Scabies in babies. Am J Dis Child. 1973 Aug;126(2):226–228. [PubMed]
  • Hogan DJ, Schachner L, Tanglertsampan C. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood scabies and pediculosis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1991 Aug;38(4):941–957. [PubMed]
  • Burgess I, Robinson RJ, Robinson J, Maunder JW, Hassan Z. Aqueous malathion 0.5% as a scabicide: clinical trial. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986 May 3;292(6529):1172–1172. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schultz MW, Gomez M, Hansen RC, Mills J, Menter A, Rodgers H, Judson FN, Mertz G, Handsfield HH. Comparative study of 5% permethrin cream and 1% lindane lotion for the treatment of scabies. Arch Dermatol. 1990 Feb;126(2):167–170. [PubMed]
  • Taplin D, Meinking TL. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids in dermatology. Arch Dermatol. 1990 Feb;126(2):213–221. [PubMed]
  • Ackerman AB. Crabs--the resurgence of Phthirus pubis. N Engl J Med. 1968 Apr 25;278(17):950–951. [PubMed]
  • Orkin M. Pediculosis today. Minn Med. 1974 Oct;57(10):848–852. [PubMed]

Articles from Genitourinary Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group