Anti-gliadin antibody was measured by radioimmunoassay in 30 Caucasians with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE). 22 GSE patients maintained on a gluten-free diet for 1.5 to 20 yr (mean duration 76 mo) had elevated serum concentrations of IgG antigliadin antibody. Among GSE patients on a gluten-free diet, antigliadin antibody was seen only in those having the chromosome 14-encoded IgG immunoglobulin heavy chain allotype marker G2m(n). IgG antigliadin antibody was found in GSE patients with G2m(n) regardless of whether the HLA-B8 and/or -DR3 major histocompatibility complex antigens that occur frequently in GSE were present. No patient lacking G2m(n) had significant levels of antigliadin antibody. The association between antigliadin antibody and the immunoglobulin heavy chain allotype marker G2m(n) in GSE patients likely reflects the presence of Gmn-linked variable region genes or Gmn-linked genes that regulate variable region gene expression.