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OBJECTIVE: Through a review of the literature, to identify and describe (1) empirical studies of inpatient nursing care quality that evaluate links between nursing care processes and health-related patient outcomes, (2) nursing care processes for which process-outcome links have been established, and (3) important nursing care processes that have not yet been evaluated. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Published empirical studies of inpatient nursing care quality that evaluated links between processes of nursing care and health-related patient outcomes. STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: This literature review used a five-step article search and review method. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 257 data-based studies of nursing care quality identified, 135 investigated a process-outcome link but only 17 met study inclusion criteria. The literature provides evidence that the quality of nursing care processes affects health-related patient outcomes during and after hospitalization. Gaps in the literature that evaluates nursing quality are identified. CONCLUSIONS: Although some nursing care processes affect health-related patient outcomes, the full extent of nursing process-outcome links is relatively understudied. Further evaluation of the interrelationships between nursing care processes and outcomes is critical.