Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994 June; 57(6): 672–681.
PMCID: PMC1072968

Parkinson's disease.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Mutch WJ, Dingwall-Fordyce I, Downie AW, Paterson JG, Roy SK. Parkinson's disease in a Scottish city. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986 Feb 22;292(6519):534–536. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wade DT, Hewer RL. Epidemiology of some neurological diseases with special reference to work load on the NHS. Int Rehabil Med. 1987;8(3):129–137. [PubMed]
  • Rajput AH, Rozdilsky B, Rajput A. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in parkinsonism--a prospective study. Can J Neurol Sci. 1991 Aug;18(3):275–278. [PubMed]
  • Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Kilford L, Lees AJ. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 Mar;55(3):181–184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brooks DJ. PET studies on the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1993 Dec;43(12 Suppl 6):S6–16. [PubMed]
  • Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Blankson S, Lees AJ. A clinicopathologic study of 100 cases of Parkinson's disease. Arch Neurol. 1993 Feb;50(2):140–148. [PubMed]
  • Palmer SS, Mortimer JA, Webster DD, Bistevins R, Dickinson GL. Exercise therapy for Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986 Oct;67(10):741–745. [PubMed]
  • Marsden CD, Parkes JD. Success and problems of long-term levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 1977 Feb 12;1(8007):345–349. [PubMed]
  • Curtis L, Lees AJ, Stern GM, Marmot MG. Effect of L-dopa on course of Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 1984 Jul 28;2(8396):211–212. [PubMed]
  • Clarke CE. Mortality from Parkinson's disease in England and Wales 1921-89. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993 Jun;56(6):690–693. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grimes JD, Delgado MR. Bromocriptine: problems with low-dose de novo therapy in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1985;8(1):73–77. [PubMed]
  • Rinne UK. Lisuride, a dopamine agonist in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1989 Mar;39(3):336–339. [PubMed]
  • Montastruc JL, Rascol O, Rascol A. A randomised controlled study of bromocriptine versus levodopa in previously untreated Parkinsonian patients: a 3 year follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989 Jun;52(6):773–775. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blin J, Bonnet AM, Agid Y. Does levodopa aggravate Parkinson's disease? Neurology. 1988 Sep;38(9):1410–1416. [PubMed]
  • Horstink MW, Zijlmans JC, Pasman JW, Berger HJ, Korten JJ, van 't Hof MA. Which risk factors predict the levodopa response in fluctuating Parkinson's disease? Ann Neurol. 1990 May;27(5):537–543. [PubMed]
  • Horstink MW, Zijlmans JC, Pasman JW, Berger HJ, van't Hof MA. Severity of Parkinson's disease is a risk factor for peak-dose dyskinesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 Mar;53(3):224–226. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roos RA, Vredevoogd CB, van der Velde EA. Response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1990 Sep;40(9):1344–1346. [PubMed]
  • Juncos JL, Engber TM, Raisman R, Susel Z, Thibaut F, Ploska A, Agid Y, Chase TN. Continuous and intermittent levodopa differentially affect basal ganglia function. Ann Neurol. 1989 May;25(5):473–478. [PubMed]
  • Thomas JE, Cascino TL, Earle JD. Differential diagnosis between radiation and tumor plexopathy of the pelvis. Neurology. 1985 Jan;35(1):1–7. [PubMed]
  • Rinne UK. Early combination of bromocriptine and levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: a 5-year follow-up. Neurology. 1987 May;37(5):826–828. [PubMed]
  • Factor SA, Weiner WJ. Early combination therapy with bromocriptine and levodopa in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1993 Jul;8(3):257–262. [PubMed]
  • Weiner WJ, Factor SA, Sanchez-Ramos JR, Singer C, Sheldon C, Cornelius L, Ingenito A. Early combination therapy (bromocriptine and levodopa) does not prevent motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1993 Jan;43(1):21–27. [PubMed]
  • Marsden CD, Parkes JD. "On-off" effects in patients with Parkinson's disease on chronic levodopa therapy. Lancet. 1976 Feb 7;1(7954):292–296. [PubMed]
  • Lesser RP, Fahn S, Snider SR, Cote LJ, Isgreen WP, Barrett RE. Analysis of the clinical problems in parkinsonism and the complications of long-term levodopa therapy. Neurology. 1979 Sep;29(9 Pt 1):1253–1260. [PubMed]
  • Shaw KM, Lees AJ, Stern GM. The impact of treatment with levodopa on Parkinson's disease. Q J Med. 1980;49(195):283–293. [PubMed]
  • Poewe WH, Lees AJ, Stern GM. Low-dose L-dopa therapy in Parkinson's disease: a 6-year follow-up study. Neurology. 1986 Nov;36(11):1528–1530. [PubMed]
  • Quinn N, Critchley P, Marsden CD. Young onset Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1987;2(2):73–91. [PubMed]
  • Kostic V, Przedborski S, Flaster E, Sternic N. Early development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias and response fluctuations in young-onset Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1991 Feb;41(2 ):202–205. [PubMed]
  • Riley DE, Lang AE. The spectrum of levodopa-related fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1993 Aug;43(8):1459–1464. [PubMed]
  • Quinn NP, Koller WC, Lang AE, Marsden CD. Painful Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 1986 Jun 14;1(8494):1366–1369. [PubMed]
  • Goetz CG, Tanner CM, Levy M, Wilson RS, Garron DC. Pain in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1986;1(1):45–49. [PubMed]
  • Lang AE, Johnson K. Akathisia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1987 Mar;37(3):477–481. [PubMed]
  • Nissenbaum H, Quinn NP, Brown RG, Toone B, Gotham AM, Marsden CD. Mood swings associated with the 'on-off' phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Psychol Med. 1987 Nov;17(4):899–904. [PubMed]
  • Cantello R, Gilli M, Riccio A, Bergamasco B. Mood changes associated with "end-of-dose deterioration" in Parkinson's disease: a controlled study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Oct;49(10):1182–1190. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Menza MA, Sage J, Marshall E, Cody R, Duvoisin R. Mood changes and "on-off" phenomena in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1990;5(2):148–151. [PubMed]
  • Barbeau A. The clinical physiology of side effects in long-term L-DOPA therapy. Adv Neurol. 1974;5:347–365. [PubMed]
  • Stein MB, Heuser IJ, Juncos JL, Uhde TW. Anxiety disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Am J Psychiatry. 1990 Feb;147(2):217–220. [PubMed]
  • Steiger MJ, Quinn NP, Toone B, Marsden CD. Off-period screaming accompanying motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1991;6(1):89–90. [PubMed]
  • Brown RG, Marsden CD, Quinn N, Wyke MA. Alterations in cognitive performance and affect-arousal state during fluctuations in motor function in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984 May;47(5):454–465. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gotham AM, Brown RG, Marsden CD. 'Frontal' cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease 'on' and 'off' levodopa. Brain. 1988 Apr;111(Pt 2):299–321. [PubMed]
  • Nutt JG. On-off phenomenon: relation to levodopa pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Ann Neurol. 1987 Oct;22(4):535–540. [PubMed]
  • Wooten GF. Progress in understanding the pathophysiology of treatment-related fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1988 Sep;24(3):363–365. [PubMed]
  • Nutt JG, Gancher ST, Woodward WR. Motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1989 Jun;25(6):633–634. [PubMed]
  • Fabbrini G, Juncos J, Mouradian MM, Serrati C, Chase TN. Levodopa pharmacokinetic mechanisms and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1987 Apr;21(4):370–376. [PubMed]
  • Mouradian MM, Juncos JL, Fabbrini G, Schlegel J, Bartko JJ, Chase TN. Motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: central pathophysiological mechanisms, Part II. Ann Neurol. 1988 Sep;24(3):372–378. [PubMed]
  • Melamed E, Bitton V, Zelig O. Episodic unresponsiveness to single doses of L-dopa in parkinsonian fluctuators. Neurology. 1986 Jan;36(1):100–103. [PubMed]
  • Hardie RJ, Lees AJ, Stern GM. On-off fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. A clinical and neuropharmacological study. Brain. 1984 Jun;107(Pt 2):487–506. [PubMed]
  • Sage JI, Trooskin S, Sonsalla PK, Heikkila R, Duvoisin RC. Long-term duodenal infusion of levodopa for motor fluctuations in parkinsonism. Ann Neurol. 1988 Jul;24(1):87–89. [PubMed]
  • Frankel JP, Lees AJ, Kempster PA, Stern GM. Subcutaneous apomorphine in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 Feb;53(2):96–101. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lees AJ, Shaw KM, Kohout LJ, Stern GM, Elsworth JD, Sandler M, Youdim MB. Deprenyl in Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 1977 Oct 15;2(8042):791–795. [PubMed]
  • Golbe LI, Lieberman AN, Muenter MD, Ahlskog JE, Gopinathan G, Neophytides AN, Foo SH, Duvoisin RC. Deprenyl in the treatment of symptom fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1988 Feb;11(1):45–55. [PubMed]
  • Pezzoli G, Tesei S, Ferrante C, Cossutta E, Zecchinelli A, Scarlato G. Madopar HBS in fluctuating parkinsonian patients: two-year treatment. Mov Disord. 1988;3(1):37–45. [PubMed]
  • Cedarbaum JM, Breck L, Kutt H, McDowell FH. Controlled-release levodopa/carbidopa. I. Sinemet CR3 treatment of response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1987 Feb;37(2):233–241. [PubMed]
  • Bush DF, Liss CL, Morton A. An open multicenter long-term treatment evaluation of Sinemet CR. Sinemet CR Multicenter Study Group. Neurology. 1989 Nov;39(11 Suppl 2):101–105. [PubMed]
  • Hutton JT, Morris JL, Bush DF, Smith ME, Liss CL, Reines S. Multicenter controlled study of Sinemet CR vs Sinemet (25/100) in advanced Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1989 Nov;39(11 Suppl 2):67–73. [PubMed]
  • Hutton JT, Morris JL. Long-acting carbidopa-levodopa in the management of moderate and advanced Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1992 Jan;42(1 Suppl 1):51–60. [PubMed]
  • LeWitt PA, Ward CD, Larsen TA, Raphaelson MI, Newman RP, Foster N, Dambrosia JM, Calne DB. Comparison of pergolide and bromocriptine therapy in parkinsonism. Neurology. 1983 Aug;33(8):1009–1014. [PubMed]
  • Langtry HD, Clissold SP. Pergolide. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease. Drugs. 1990 Mar;39(3):491–506. [PubMed]
  • Kurth MC, Tetrud JW, Irwin I, Lyness WH, Langston JW. Oral levodopa/carbidopa solution versus tablets in Parkinson's patients with severe fluctuations: a pilot study. Neurology. 1993 May;43(5):1036–1039. [PubMed]
  • Berkowitz DM, McCallum RW. Interaction of levodopa and metoclopramide on gastric emptying. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Mar;27(3):414–420. [PubMed]
  • Lau E, Waterman K, Glover R, Schulzer M, Calne DB. Effect of antacid on levodopa therapy. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1986;9(5):477–479. [PubMed]
  • Pincus JH, Barry K. Protein redistribution diet restores motor function in patients with dopa-resistant "off" periods. Neurology. 1988 Mar;38(3):481–483. [PubMed]
  • Hughes AJ, Bishop S, Kleedorfer B, Turjanski N, Fernandez W, Lees AJ, Stern GM. Subcutaneous apomorphine in Parkinson's disease: response to chronic administration for up to five years. Mov Disord. 1993 Apr;8(2):165–170. [PubMed]
  • Luquin MR, Scipioni O, Vaamonde J, Gershanik O, Obeso JA. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: clinical and pharmacological classification. Mov Disord. 1992;7(2):117–124. [PubMed]
  • Marconi R, Lefebvre-Caparros D, Bonnet AM, Vidailhet M, Dubois B, Agid Y. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease phenomenology and pathophysiology. Mov Disord. 1994 Jan;9(1):2–12. [PubMed]
  • Mouradian MM, Heuser IJ, Baronti F, Fabbrini G, Juncos JL, Chase TN. Pathogenesis of dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1989 May;25(5):523–526. [PubMed]
  • Nutt JG. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: review, observations, and speculations. Neurology. 1990 Feb;40(2):340–345. [PubMed]
  • Muenter MD, Tyce GM. L-dopa therapy of Parkinson's disease: plasma L-dopa concentration, therapeutic response, and side effects. Mayo Clin Proc. 1971 Apr;46(4):231–239. [PubMed]
  • Lhermitte F, Agid Y, Signoret JL. Onset and end-of-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Possible treatment by increasing the daily doses of levodopa. Arch Neurol. 1978 May;35(5):261–263. [PubMed]
  • Giladi N, McMahon D, Przedborski S, Flaster E, Guillory S, Kostic V, Fahn S. Motor blocks in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1992 Feb;42(2):333–339. [PubMed]
  • Koller WC, Glatt S, Vetere-Overfield B, Hassanein R. Falls and Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1989 Apr;12(2):98–105. [PubMed]
  • Bushmann M, Dobmeyer SM, Leeker L, Perlmutter JS. Swallowing abnormalities and their response to treatment in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1989 Oct;39(10):1309–1314. [PubMed]
  • Bonnet AM, Loria Y, Saint-Hilaire MH, Lhermitte F, Agid Y. Does long-term aggravation of Parkinson's disease result from nondopaminergic lesions? Neurology. 1987 Sep;37(9):1539–1542. [PubMed]
  • Durso R, Isaac K, Perry L, Saint-Hilaire M, Feldman RG. Age influences magnitude but not duration of response to levodopa. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993 Jan;56(1):65–68. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beattie A, Caird FI. The occupational therapist and the patient with Parkinson's disease. Br Med J. 1980 Jun 7;280(6228):1354–1355. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scott S, Caird FI. Speech therapy for Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1983 Feb;46(2):140–144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Robertson SJ, Thomson F. Speech therapy in Parkinson's disease: a study of the efficacy ad long term effects of intensive treatment. Br J Disord Commun. 1984 Dec;19(3):213–224. [PubMed]
  • Edwards LL, Quigley EM, Pfeiffer RF. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: frequency and pathophysiology. Neurology. 1992 Apr;42(4):726–732. [PubMed]
  • Fitzmaurice H, Fowler CJ, Rickards D, Kirby RS, Quinn NP, Marsden CD, Milroy EJ, Turner-Warwick RT. Micturition disturbance in Parkinson's disease. Br J Urol. 1985 Dec;57(6):652–656. [PubMed]
  • Mathers SE, Kempster PA, Law PJ, Frankel JP, Bartram CI, Lees AJ, Stern GM, Swash M. Anal sphincter dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Arch Neurol. 1989 Oct;46(10):1061–1064. [PubMed]
  • Lees AJ, Smith E. Cognitive deficits in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1983 Jun;106(Pt 2):257–270. [PubMed]
  • Rogers D, Lees AJ, Smith E, Trimble M, Stern GM. Bradyphrenia in Parkinson's disease and psychomotor retardation in depressive illness. An experimental study. Brain. 1987 Jun;110(Pt 3):761–776. [PubMed]
  • Brown RG, Marsden CD. How common is dementia in Parkinson's disease? Lancet. 1984 Dec 1;2(8414):1262–1265. [PubMed]
  • McKeith IG, Perry RH, Fairbairn AF, Jabeen S, Perry EK. Operational criteria for senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT). Psychol Med. 1992 Nov;22(4):911–922. [PubMed]
  • de Smet Y, Ruberg M, Serdaru M, Dubois B, Lhermitte F, Agid Y. Confusion, dementia and anticholinergics in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1982 Dec;45(12):1161–1164. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Byrne EJ, Lennox G, Lowe J, Godwin-Austen RB. Diffuse Lewy body disease: clinical features in 15 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989 Jun;52(6):709–717. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Perry RH, Irving D, Blessed G, Fairbairn A, Perry EK. Senile dementia of Lewy body type. A clinically and neuropathologically distinct form of Lewy body dementia in the elderly. J Neurol Sci. 1990 Feb;95(2):119–139. [PubMed]
  • Crystal HA, Dickson DW, Lizardi JE, Davies P, Wolfson LI. Antemortem diagnosis of diffuse Lewy body disease. Neurology. 1990 Oct;40(10):1523–1528. [PubMed]
  • Scholz E, Dichgans J. Treatment of drug-induced exogenous psychosis in parkinsonism with clozapine and fluperlapine. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 1985;235(1):60–64. [PubMed]
  • Friedman JH, Lannon MC. Clozapine in the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1989 Sep;39(9):1219–1221. [PubMed]
  • Wolters EC, Hurwitz TA, Mak E, Teal P, Peppard FR, Remick R, Calne S, Calne DB. Clozapine in the treatment of parkinsonian patients with dopaminomimetic psychosis. Neurology. 1990 May;40(5):832–834. [PubMed]
  • Gotham AM, Brown RG, Marsden CD. Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Apr;49(4):381–389. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown RG, MacCarthy B, Gotham AM, Der GJ, Marsden CD. Depression and disability in Parkinson's disease: a follow-up of 132 cases. Psychol Med. 1988 Feb;18(1):49–55. [PubMed]
  • Steur EN. Increase of Parkinson disability after fluoxetine medication. Neurology. 1993 Jan;43(1):211–213. [PubMed]
  • Fox MW, Ahlskog JE, Kelly PJ. Stereotactic ventrolateralis thalamotomy for medically refractory tremor in post-levodopa era Parkinson's disease patients. J Neurosurg. 1991 Nov;75(5):723–730. [PubMed]
  • Diederich N, Goetz CG, Stebbins GT, Klawans HL, Nittner K, Koulosakis A, Sanker P, Sturm V. Blinded evaluation confirms long-term asymmetric effect of unilateral thalamotomy or subthalamotomy on tremor in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1992 Jul;42(7):1311–1314. [PubMed]
  • Goetz CG, De Long MR, Penn RD, Bakay RA. Neurosurgical horizons in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1993 Jan;43(1):1–7. [PubMed]
  • Laitinen LV, Bergenheim AT, Hariz MI. Leksell's posteroventral pallidotomy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosurg. 1992 Jan;76(1):53–61. [PubMed]
  • Benabid AL, Pollak P, Gervason C, Hoffmann D, Gao DM, Hommel M, Perret JE, de Rougemont J. Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet. 1991 Feb 16;337(8738):403–406. [PubMed]
  • Lindvall O, Brundin P, Widner H, Rehncrona S, Gustavii B, Frackowiak R, Leenders KL, Sawle G, Rothwell JC, Marsden CD, et al. Grafts of fetal dopamine neurons survive and improve motor function in Parkinson's disease. Science. 1990 Feb 2;247(4942):574–577. [PubMed]
  • Spencer DD, Robbins RJ, Naftolin F, Marek KL, Vollmer T, Leranth C, Roth RH, Price LH, Gjedde A, Bunney BS, et al. Unilateral transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue into the caudate nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 1992 Nov 26;327(22):1541–1548. [PubMed]
  • Freed CR, Breeze RE, Rosenberg NL, Schneck SA, Kriek E, Qi JX, Lone T, Zhang YB, Snyder JA, Wells TH, et al. Survival of implanted fetal dopamine cells and neurologic improvement 12 to 46 months after transplantation for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 1992 Nov 26;327(22):1549–1555. [PubMed]
  • Widner H, Tetrud J, Rehncrona S, Snow B, Brundin P, Gustavii B, Björklund A, Lindvall O, Langston JW. Bilateral fetal mesencephalic grafting in two patients with parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) N Engl J Med. 1992 Nov 26;327(22):1556–1563. [PubMed]
  • Fahn S. Fetal-tissue transplants in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 1992 Nov 26;327(22):1589–1590. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group