Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of hsresearchLink to Publisher's site
Health Serv Res. 1976 Winter; 11(4): 396–415.
PMCID: PMC1071941

Scales for measuring general health perceptions.


This article reports on the construction and testing of eight health perception scales from 32 items on a standardized survey instrument designed for self-administration, the Health Perceptions Questionnaire (Form II). The scales measure perceptions of prior health, current health, health outlook, resistance/susceptibility to illness, health worry/concern, sickness orientation, rejection of sick role, and attitude toward going to the doctor. Field testing revealed that the scales are valid, reliable, and stable over time for diverse populations. It is recommended that the scales be used in studies requiring general health measures. Suggestions for future research are offered.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Berkman PL. Life stress and psychological well-being: a replication of Langner's analysis in the Midtown Manhattan Study. J Health Soc Behav. 1971 Mar;12(1):35–45. [PubMed]
  • Hochstim JR, Athanasopoulos DA, Larkins JH. Poverty area under the microscope. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Oct;58(10):1815–1827. [PubMed]
  • Fabrega H, Jr, Roberts RE. Social-psychological correlates of physician use by economically disadvantaged Negro urban residents. Med Care. 1972 May-Jun;10(3):215–223. [PubMed]
  • Cole S, Lejeune R. Illness and the legitimation of failure. Am Sociol Rev. 1972 Jun;37(3):347–356. [PubMed]
  • Cutler SJ. Voluntary association participation and life satisfaction: a cautionary research note. J Gerontol. 1973 Jan;28(1):96–100. [PubMed]
  • HEYMAN DK, JEFFERS FC. Effect of time lapse on consistency of self-health and medical evaluations of elderly person. J Gerontol. 1963 Apr;18:160–164. [PubMed]
  • Ludwig EG, Gibson G. Self perception of sickness and the seeking of medical care. J Health Soc Behav. 1969 Jun;10(2):125–133. [PubMed]
  • Tissue T. Another look at self-rated health among the elderly. J Gerontol. 1972 Jan;27(1):91–94. [PubMed]
  • Spreitzer E, Snyder EE. Correlates of life satisfaction among the aged. J Gerontol. 1974 Jul;29(4):454–458. [PubMed]
  • Pratt L. The relationship of socioeconomic status to health. Am J Public Health. 1971 Feb;61(2):281–291. [PubMed]
  • Comrey AL. Tandem criteria for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika. 1967 Jun;32(2):143–154. [PubMed]
  • Newhouse JP. A design for a health insurance experiment. Inquiry. 1974 Mar;11(1):5–27. [PubMed]

Articles from Health Services Research are provided here courtesy of Health Research & Educational Trust