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OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of a 1990 ban by New York state on entry to more than one waiting list for a cadaver kidney transplant, and the impact of the ban on equity in access to transplantation. DATA SOURCES: (1) Waiting list files from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, (2) the Health Care Financing Administration's Medicare Program Management and Medical Information System, and (3) U.S. Census Public Use Files. STUDY DESIGN: Multivariate hazard models were used to estimate the impact of the ban of the overall odds of multiple listing and on the odds of multiple listing at in-state and out-of-state transplant centers. After estimating the relationship between multiple listing and subsequent transplantation, we used simulation techniques to estimate the effects of a complete multiple listing ban on group waiting time differentials. Independent variables included demographic/socioeconomic characteristics, measures of ESRD severity, general transplantation suitability, measures that affect the likelihood of finding a good donor organ, and measures of the productivity of the transplant/dialysis center. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ban was associated with a 66 percent reduction in the rate of multiple listing for New York patients, and multiple listing at in-state transplant centers declined by 87 percent. Simulation results suggested that even a completely effective ban would produce only small, mixed equity effects. CONCLUSIONS: While the ban was effective in reducing the proportion of patients who registered at multiple transplant centers, taken together the results suggest that banning multiple listing is not likely to result in large improvements in equity in access to transplantation.