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One method used to determine utilization rates of cervical screening is women's self-report. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of this measure--none has been conducted in Australia--although there are a number of reasons for suspecting its validity. This study examined and quantified the accuracy of self-report of Pap smear use among a randomly selected sample of women from an Australian community. Accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report within a three-year period was assessed by comparison with pathology records. Results indicated that almost half of the women who have not had Pap smears within three years will be missed by a self-report measure of utilization. Some implications for the measurement and use of self-report data are discussed.