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Health Serv Res. 1982 Fall; 17(3): 213–240.
PMCID: PMC1068678

Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.


Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Sample SA. Development of organizational by-laws: an approach to accountability. Nurs Clin North Am. 1978 Mar;13(1):91–102. [PubMed]
  • Flood AB, Scott WR. Professional power and professional effectiveness: the power of the surgical staff and the quality of surgical care in hospitals. J Health Soc Behav. 1978 Sep;19(3):240–254. [PubMed]
  • Palmer RH, Reilly MC. Individual and institutional variables which may serve as indicators of quality of medical care. Med Care. 1979 Jul;17(7):693–717. [PubMed]
  • Nagi SZ. Teamwork in health care in the U.S.: a sociological perspective. Milbank Mem Fund Q Health Soc. 1975 Winter;53(1):75–91. [PubMed]

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