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This study calculates the cost effectiveness of adequate prenatal care in reducing the low birth weight rate for each of three socioeconomic groups of women: those with less than 12 years of education, those with 12 years, and those with more than 12 years. Target low birth weight rates for each group were those actually achieved by New Hampshire women receiving adequate prenatal care within respective education groups. The estimated total cost associated with low birth weight births among the 1981-1984 cohort of New Hampshire resident births was more than $38 million. With universal adequate prenatal care, the low birth weight costs would be less than $32 million, a cost savings of $6.5 million. Since the additional cost of providing adequate prenatal care to all women was estimated to be $2.5 million, the net cost savings were estimated to be $4 million, or $1 million per year. For each additional $1 spent on prenatal care, $2.57 in medical care costs would be saved.