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Ten different multi-item indexes and nine single-item measures were used to assess the quality of life of patients undergoing one of four major modalities of treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Assessments were made on a population-based sample of Michigan patients with onset of ESRD after November 1, 1981, during the period May 1984 to September 1986. The nature of these measures is described and correlations among them are reported. The correlations suggest that these indexes tend to represent either function or feeling, with moderate relationships within the two clusters but little between them. Findings are also reported in terms of age, race, and sex. Depending on the measure chosen to assess quality of life, different conclusions about the relationship of quality of life to these demographic characteristics will be reached. These conclusions may help readers think more critically about the nature of quality of life in arriving at judgments on the relative validity of these different measures.