There is a critical need for research to examine the changing mental health services system, to evaluate major innovations in the provision of mental health treatment, and to remove existing barriers to comprehensive and cost-effective care. To achieve these aims, collaboration is needed among government agencies, mental health services programs, academic institutions, and the private sector. The National Institute of Mental Health supports research and research training on the mental health services system primarily through the Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences. This article focuses on the division's three priority research areas of the mental health services system: the provision of mental health care in the primary care sector, the organization and delivery of care for the chronically mentally ill, and financing and reimbursement of care. The various mechanisms of research support are also highlighted.