Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jepicomhJournal of Epidemiology and Community HealthVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1995 December; 49(6): 563–569.
PMCID: PMC1060169

Multiple sclerosis: it epidemiological, genetic, and health care impact.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • McFarland HF, Frank JA, Albert PS, Smith ME, Martin R, Harris JO, Patronas N, Maloni H, McFarlin DE. Using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging lesions to monitor disease activity in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1992 Dec;32(6):758–766. [PubMed]
  • Phadke JG, Downie AW. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in the north-east (Grampian region) of Scotland--an update. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1987 Mar;41(1):5–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Swingler RJ, Compston DA. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in south east Wales. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988 Dec;51(12):1520–1524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roberts MH, Martin JP, McLellan DL, McIntosh-Michaelis SA, Spackman AJ. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Southampton and South West Hampshire Health Authority. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1991 Jan;54(1):55–59. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lockyer MJ. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in five rural Suffolk practices. BMJ. 1991 Aug 10;303(6798):347–348. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mumford CJ, Fraser MB, Wood NW, Compston DA. Multiple sclerosis in the Cambridge health district of east Anglia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 Oct;55(10):877–882. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Compston A, Sadovnick AD. Epidemiology and genetics of multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg. 1992 Apr;5(2):175–181. [PubMed]
  • Acheson ED. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Br Med Bull. 1977 Jan;33(1):9–14. [PubMed]
  • Poser CM, Paty DW, Scheinberg L, McDonald WI, Davis FA, Ebers GC, Johnson KP, Sibley WA, Silberberg DH, Tourtellotte WW. New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines for research protocols. Ann Neurol. 1983 Mar;13(3):227–231. [PubMed]
  • Wittes JT, Colton T, Sidel VW. Capture-recapture methods for assessing the completeness of case ascertainment when using multiple information sources. J Chronic Dis. 1974 Feb;27(1):25–36. [PubMed]
  • Hook EB, Regal RR. The value of capture-recapture methods even for apparent exhaustive surveys. The need for adjustment for source of ascertainment intersection in attempted complete prevalence studies. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 May 1;135(9):1060–1067. [PubMed]
  • McCarty DJ, Tull ES, Moy CS, Kwoh CK, LaPorte RE. Ascertainment corrected rates: applications of capture-recapture methods. Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Jun;22(3):559–565. [PubMed]
  • Dean G. Annual incidence, prevalence, and mortality of multiple sclerosis in white South-African-born and in white immigrants to South Africa. Br Med J. 1967 Jun 17;2(5554):724–730. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean G, Kurtzke JF. On the risk of multiple sclerosis according to age at immigration to South Africa. Br Med J. 1971 Sep 25;3(5777):725–729. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elian M, Nightingale S, Dean G. Multiple sclerosis among United Kingdom-born children of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, Africa and the West Indies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 Oct;53(10):906–911. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sadovnick AD, Baird PA. The familial nature of multiple sclerosis: age-corrected empiric recurrence risks for children and siblings of patients. Neurology. 1988 Jun;38(6):990–991. [PubMed]
  • Sadovnick AD, Baird PA, Ward RH. Multiple sclerosis: updated risks for relatives. Am J Med Genet. 1988 Mar;29(3):533–541. [PubMed]
  • Risch N. Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits. I. Multilocus models. Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Feb;46(2):222–228. [PubMed]
  • Sadovnick AD, Armstrong H, Rice GP, Bulman D, Hashimoto L, Paty DW, Hashimoto SA, Warren S, Hader W, Murray TJ, et al. A population-based study of multiple sclerosis in twins: update. Ann Neurol. 1993 Mar;33(3):281–285. [PubMed]
  • Marrosu MG, Muntoni F, Murru MR, Spinicci G, Pischedda MP, Goddi F, Cossu P, Pirastu M. Sardinian multiple sclerosis is associated with HLA-DR4: a serologic and molecular analysis. Neurology. 1988 Nov;38(11):1749–1753. [PubMed]
  • Spurkland A, Rønningen KS, Vandvik B, Thorsby E, Vartdal F. HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes may jointly determine susceptibility to develop multiple sclerosis. Hum Immunol. 1991 Jan;30(1):69–75. [PubMed]
  • Howell WM, Sage DA, Evans PR, Smith JL, Francis GS, Haegert DG. No association between susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and HLA-DPB1 alleles in the French Canadian population. Tissue Antigens. 1991 Apr;37(4):156–160. [PubMed]
  • Middleton D, Savage DA, Cullen C, Trainor F, Mallon E, Hawkins S. Frequency of HLA-DPB1 alleles in multiple sclerosis patients from Northern Ireland. Eur J Immunogenet. 1992 Oct;19(5):323–326. [PubMed]
  • Beall SS, Biddison WE, McFarlin DE, McFarland HF, Hood LE. Susceptibility for multiple sclerosis is determined, in part, by inheritance of a 175-kb region of the TcR V beta chain locus and HLA class II genes. J Neuroimmunol. 1993 Jun;45(1-2):53–60. [PubMed]
  • Haseman JK, Elston RC. The investigation of linkage between a quantitative trait and a marker locus. Behav Genet. 1972 Mar;2(1):3–19. [PubMed]
  • Cudworth AG, Woodrow JC. Evidence for HL-A-linked genes in "juvenile" diabetes mellitus. Br Med J. 1975 Jul 19;3(5976):133–135. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Louis EJ, Thomson G, Payami H. The affected sib method. II. The intermediate model. Ann Hum Genet. 1983 Jul;47(Pt 3):225–243. [PubMed]
  • Motro U, Thomson G. The affected sib method. I. Statistical features of the affected sib-pair method. Genetics. 1985 Jul;110(3):525–538. [PubMed]
  • Payami H, Thomson G, Motro U, Louis EJ, Hudes E. The affected sib method. IV. Sib trios. Ann Hum Genet. 1985 Oct;49(Pt 4):303–314. [PubMed]
  • Payami H, Louis EJ, Klitz W, Lo SK, Thomson G. Family and population analysis of multiple sclerosis. Genet Epidemiol Suppl. 1986;1:381–386. [PubMed]
  • Alter M, Harshe M, Anderson VE, Emme L, Yunis EJ. Genetic association of multiple sclerosis and HL-A determinants. Neurology. 1976 Jan;26(1):31–36. [PubMed]
  • Olsson JE, Möller E, Link H. HLA haplotypes in families with high frequency of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1976 Dec;33(12):808–812. [PubMed]
  • Eldridge R, McFarland H, Sever J, Sadowsky D, Krebs H. Familial multiple sclerosis: clinical, histocompatibility, and viral serological studies. Ann Neurol. 1978 Jan;3(1):72–80. [PubMed]
  • Ebers GC, Paty DW, Stiller CR, Nelson RF, Seland TP, Larsen B. HLA-typing in multiple sclerosis sibling pairs. Lancet. 1982 Jul 10;2(8289):88–90. [PubMed]
  • Thomson G. Investigation of the mode of inheritance of the HLA associated diseases by the method of antigen genotype frequencies among diseased individuals. Tissue Antigens. 1983 Feb;21(2):81–104. [PubMed]
  • Stewart GJ, McLeod JG, Basten A, Bashir HV. HLA family studies and multiple sclerosis: A common gene, dominantly expressed. Hum Immunol. 1981 Aug;3(1):13–29. [PubMed]
  • Risch N. Genetic analysis workshop IV: summary of the multiple sclerosis workshop. Genet Epidemiol Suppl. 1986;1:371–380. [PubMed]
  • Risch N. Assessing the role of HLA-linked and unlinked determinants of disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1987 Jan;40(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • ARKIN H, SHERMAN IC, WEINBERG SL. Tetraethylammonium chloride in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1950 Oct;64(4):536–545. [PubMed]
  • ALEXANDER L. New concept of critical steps in course of chronic debilitating neurologic disease in evaluation of therapeutic response; a longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis by quantitative evaluation of neurologic involvement and disability. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1951 Sep;66(3):253–271. [PubMed]
  • Fog T. A scoring system for neurological impairment in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1965;13(Pt 2):551–555. [PubMed]
  • Mickey MR, Ellison GW, Myers LW. An illness severity score for multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1984 Oct;34(10):1343–1347. [PubMed]
  • Sipe JC, Knobler RL, Braheny SL, Rice GP, Panitch HS, Oldstone MB. A neurologic rating scale (NRS) for use in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1984 Oct;34(10):1368–1372. [PubMed]
  • Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology. 1983 Nov;33(11):1444–1452. [PubMed]
  • Willoughby EW, Paty DW. Scales for rating impairment in multiple sclerosis: a critique. Neurology. 1988 Nov;38(11):1793–1798. [PubMed]
  • Rodriguez M, Siva A, Ward J, Stolp-Smith K, O'Brien P, Kurland L. Impairment, disability, and handicap in multiple sclerosis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Neurology. 1994 Jan;44(1):28–33. [PubMed]
  • Swingler RJ, Compston DA. The morbidity of multiple sclerosis. Q J Med. 1992 Apr;83(300):325–337. [PubMed]
  • McDonald WI, Halliday AM. Diagnosis and classification of multiple sclerosis. Br Med Bull. 1977 Jan;33(1):4–9. [PubMed]
  • Phadke JG. Clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis in north-east Scotland with particular reference to its course and prognosis. Brain. 1990 Dec;113(Pt 6):1597–1628. [PubMed]
  • Weinshenker BG, Bass B, Rice GP, Noseworthy J, Carriere W, Baskerville J, Ebers GC. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study. I. Clinical course and disability. Brain. 1989 Feb;112(Pt 1):133–146. [PubMed]
  • Grønning M, Hannisdal E, Mellgren SI. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with unemployment in people with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 May;53(5):388–390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Confavreux C, Aimard G, Devic M. Course and prognosis of multiple sclerosis assessed by the computerized data processing of 349 patients. Brain. 1980 Jun;103(2):281–300. [PubMed]
  • Phadke JG. Survival pattern and cause of death in patients with multiple sclerosis: results from an epidemiological survey in north east Scotland. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 May;50(5):523–531. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MCALPINE D. The benign form of multiple sclerosis. A study based on 241 cases seen within three years of onset and followed up until the tenth year or more of the disease. Brain. 1961 Jun;84:186–203. [PubMed]
  • Kurtzke JF, Beebe GW, Nagler B, Kurland LT, Auth TL. Studies on the natural history of multiple sclerosis--8. Early prognostic features of the later course of the illness. J Chronic Dis. 1977 Dec;30(12):819–830. [PubMed]
  • Clark VA, Detels R, Visscher BR, Valdiviezo NL, Malmgren RM, Dudley JP. Factors associated with a malignant or benign course of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 1982 Aug 20;248(7):856–860. [PubMed]
  • Gudmundsson KR. Clinical studies of multiple sclerosis in Iceland. A follow-up of previous survey and reappraisal. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1971;48:1–78. [PubMed]
  • Leibowitz U, Kahana E, Alter M. Survival and death in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 1969 Mar;92(1):115–130. [PubMed]
  • Kurtzke JF, Auth TL, Beebe GW, Kurland LT, Nagler B, Nefzger MD. Survival in multiple sclerosis. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1969;94:134–139. [PubMed]
  • Rose AS. Long-term care of patients with multiple sclerosis: a neurologist's perspective. Neurology. 1980 Jul;30(7 Pt 2):59–60. [PubMed]
  • Compston A. The modern management of multiple sclerosis. Br J Hosp Med. 1986 Sep;36(3):200–208. [PubMed]
  • Geronemus DF. The role of the social worker in the comprehensive long-term care of multiple sclerosis patients. Neurology. 1980 Jul;30(7 Pt 2):48–54. [PubMed]
  • McLaughlin J, Zeeberg I. Self-care and multiple sclerosis: a view from two cultures. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Aug;37(3):315–329. [PubMed]
  • Lengdobler H, Kiessling WR. Gruppenmusiktherapie bei multipler Sklerose: Ein erster Erfahrungsbericht. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1989 Sep-Oct;39(9-10):369–373. [PubMed]
  • O'Brien MT. Multiple sclerosis: stressors and coping strategies in spousal caregivers. J Community Health Nurs. 1993;10(3):123–135. [PubMed]
  • O'Brien MT. Multiple sclerosis: the relationship among self-esteem, social support, and coping behavior. Appl Nurs Res. 1993 May;6(2):54–63. [PubMed]
  • Mushlin AI, Mooney C, Grow V, Phelps CE. The value of diagnostic information to patients with suspected multiple sclerosis. Rochester-Toronto MRI Study Group. Arch Neurol. 1994 Jan;51(1):67–72. [PubMed]
  • Crawford JD, McIvor GP. Group psychotherapy: benefits in multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985 Dec;66(12):810–813. [PubMed]
  • Greenspun B, Stineman M, Agri R. Multiple sclerosis and rehabilitation outcome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1987 Jul;68(7):434–437. [PubMed]
  • Aschoff JC, Braitinger S. Die Veränderung von subjektiver Befindlichkeit und körperlichen Beschwerden bei Multiple Sklerose-Patienten im Rahmen einer mehrwöchigen stationären Therapie. Nervenarzt. 1986 May;57(5):287–292. [PubMed]
  • Luoto E, Jussilainen M, Sandell S. Hoitotyöllä elämän laatua toistokatetrointi hyvinvoinnin osatekijänä. Sairaanhoitaja. 1993;(1):17–20. [PubMed]
  • Kindwall EP, McQuillen MP, Khatri BO, Gruchow HW, Kindwall ML. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with hyperbaric oxygen. Results of a national registry. Arch Neurol. 1991 Feb;48(2):195–199. [PubMed]
  • Cook SD, Troiano R, Rohowsky-Kochan C, Jotkowitz A, Bielory L, Mehta PD, Oleske J, Bansil S, Dowling PC. Intravenous gamma globulin in progressive MS. Acta Neurol Scand. 1992 Aug;86(2):171–175. [PubMed]
  • McBride Gail. Patients with multiple sclerosis enter lottery. BMJ. 1993 Oct 16;307(6910):958–958. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodkin DE, Kanoti GA. Ethical considerations raised by the approval of interferon beta-1b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1994 Jan;44(1):166–170. [PubMed]
  • Elian M, Dean G. Need for and use of social and health services by multiple sclerosis patients living at home in England. Lancet. 1983 May 14;1(8333):1091–1093. [PubMed]
  • Johnson GS, Johnson RH. Social-services support for multiple sclerosis patients in West of Scotland. Lancet. 1977 Jan 1;1(8001):31–34. [PubMed]
  • Christensen O, Clausen J. Social remedial measures for multiple sclerosis patients in Denmark. Acta Neurol Scand. 1977 May;55(5):394–406. [PubMed]
  • Kraft GH, Freal JE, Coryell JK. Disability, disease duration, and rehabilitation service needs in multiple sclerosis: patient perspectives. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986 Mar;67(3):164–168. [PubMed]
  • Catanzaro M, Weinert C. Economic status of families living with multiple sclerosis. Int J Rehabil Res. 1992;15(3):209–218. [PubMed]
  • Kornblith AB, La Rocca NG, Baum HM. Employment in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Int J Rehabil Res. 1986;9(2):155–165. [PubMed]
  • Buelow JM. A correlational study of disabilities, stressors and coping methods in victims of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Nurs. 1991 Aug;23(4):247–252. [PubMed]
  • O'Connor P, Detsky AS, Tansey C, Kucharczyk W. Effect of diagnostic testing for multiple sclerosis on patient health perceptions. Rochester-Toronto MRI Study Group. Arch Neurol. 1994 Jan;51(1):46–51. [PubMed]
  • Bourdette DN, Prochazka AV, Mitchell W, Licari P, Burks J. Health care costs of veterans with multiple sclerosis: implications for the rehabilitation of MS. VA Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Study Group. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993 Jan;74(1):26–31. [PubMed]
  • Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC, Wilson RW, Paty DW. Life expectancy in patients attending multiple sclerosis clinics. Neurology. 1992 May;42(5):991–994. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group