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A case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that paternal occupation is a risk factor for Wilms' tumour in offspring. Occupations associated with exposure to lead (Pb) and to hydrocarbons were examined by computing odds ratios, all of which were greater than unity but not by a statistically significant margin. When painters were considered separately, children whose fathers had been so employed were six times more likely to develop Wilms' tumour than children whose fathers had other occupations. Like the results for the Pb and hydrocarbon related occupations, the estimated relative risk associated with painters did not reach statistical significance. Although these data require cautious interpretation because of the relatively small number of subjects, the results reported here are not wholly consistent with the results of the one previous study of paternal occupation and Wilms' tumour in offspring.