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The craniosynostosis syndromes are a heterogeneous group of sporadic, autosomal dominant disorders with significant clinical overlap. Recently, we described a large family with autosomal dominant craniosynostosis suggestive of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, in which linkage to the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome loci on 7p had been excluded. We now report the presence of a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) in this family. The mutation, P250R, had been previously reported in 10 patients with non-syndromic craniosynostosis. Variable expression of this mutation is evident especially in two additional members of this family, one of whom is severely affected with pancraniosynostosis. The family provides a further example of genetic heterogeneity and variable expression of the craniosynostosis syndromes and broadens the phenotypic spectrum associated with the FGFR3 mutation P250R. In addition, we found a polymorphism (F384L) in the transmembrane domain of FGFR3 which occurs with a frequency of 3% in the Turkish population but is uncommon among Germans.