PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jmedgeneJournal of Medical GeneticsVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
 
J Med Genet. 1986 August; 23(4): 333–337.
PMCID: PMC1049700

Aetiological factors in hypospadias.

Abstract

Epidemiological and genetic variables in hypospadias were analysed during the years 1978 to 1983 in a case control study of congenital malformations in the Emilia Romagna region of northern Italy. During the observation period, in a sample of 41 078 male newborns, 168 had hypospadias giving a prevalence at birth of 4.1 in 1000 males. Hypospadias was divided into three types: type I or mild (75.0%); type II or moderate (21.4%); and type III or severe (3.6%). Coexisting malformations were found in 8.9% of cases. The heritability coefficient was 0.669. Maternal risk factors correlated with hypospadias were found to be early age at menarche, threatened abortion, and exposure to progestins. Low birth weight and shorter gestation were also correlated with hypospadias.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (639K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page.

Articles from Journal of Medical Genetics are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group