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It is widely accepted that male determination in man depends on the presence of a factor or factors on the Y chromosome. These factors may be localised within the Y chromosome through the study of structural anomalies of the Y. A thorough review of seven different structural anomalies of the Y is presented: dicentric Y chromosomes, Y isochromosomes, ring Y chromosomes, Y; autosome, Y;X, and Y;Y translocations, and Y deletions. The evidence from these studies indicates that a gene or genes on the short arm or the Y near the centromere play a crucial role in the development of the testes. A few studies indicate that one or more factors on the long arm of the Y may also influence testicular development. If such a factor is present on the long arm, then it too must be very near the centromere. The theory that separate genes independently control the initial development and maturation of the tests (on the long and short arms of the Y, respectively) may be premature. Recently proposed arguments in its favour are examined. Some evidence also indicates the presence of a fertility factor on the non-fluorescent segment of the long arm. Relevant information on the H-Y antigen is discussed.