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Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 January; 50(1): 96–99.
PMCID: PMC1033259

Clinical neurological examination, neuropsychology, electroencephalography and computed tomographic head scanning in active amateur boxers.


Twenty active amateur boxers were studied seeking evidence of neurological dysfunction and, if present, the best method for detecting it. Seven of these boxers had an abnormal clinical neurological examination, eight an abnormal EEG and nine of 15 examined had abnormal neuropsychometry. The CT scan was abnormal in only one. An abnormal clinical examination correlated significantly (p less than 0.05) with an increasing number of fights, and an abnormal EEG with decreasing age (p less than 0.05). In several of the neuropsychometric tests, the boxers were significantly worse than controls (p less than 0.05). Neuropsychometry was the best method for detecting neurological dysfunction.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Casson IR, Siegel O, Sham R, Campbell EA, Tarlau M, DiDomenico A. Brain damage in modern boxers. JAMA. 1984 May 25;251(20):2663–2667. [PubMed]
  • Thomassen A, Juul-Jensen P, de Fine Olivarius B, Braemer J, Christensen AL. Neurological, electroencephalographic and neuropsychological examination of 53 former amateur boxers. Acta Neurol Scand. 1979 Dec;60(6):352–362. [PubMed]
  • Kaste M, Kuurne T, Vilkki J, Katevuo K, Sainio K, Meurala H. Is chronic brain damage in boxing a hazard of the past? Lancet. 1982 Nov 27;2(8309):1186–1188. [PubMed]
  • Gronwall D, Wrightson P. Delayed recovery of intellectual function after minor head injury. Lancet. 1974 Sep 14;2(7881):605–609. [PubMed]
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  • Wilson JT. Effects of stimulus luminance and duration on responses to onset and offset. Vision Res. 1983;23(12):1699–1709. [PubMed]

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