PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
 
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 September; 49(9): 991–996.
PMCID: PMC1029001

The syndrome of Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum.

Abstract

Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum was the first to describe catatonia in 1868. There has been a tendency to consider catatonia as a psychiatric disease despite many case reports demonstrating a wide range of medical and neurological as well as psychiatric causes. We present our accumulated experience of the catatonic syndrome. Most cases (36%) were associated with affective illness but five cases (20%) had a defined organic disorder. A significant minority had no identifiable cause and there was only one case of schizophrenia. The idiopathic and affective groups had a high incidence of recurrent catatonic episodes and many had a family history of a similar problem. The prognosis was excellent, except for the few patients who presented with the acute and rapidly progressive form of the syndrome which led to acute renal failure.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (843K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gelenberg AJ. The catatonic syndrome. Lancet. 1976 Jun 19;1(7973):1339–1341. [PubMed]
  • Freeman JM, Finkelstein JD, Mudd SH. Folate-responsive homocystinuria and "schizophrenia". A defect in methylation due to deficient 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity. N Engl J Med. 1975 Mar 6;292(10):491–496. [PubMed]
  • Cooper AF, Schapira K. Case report: depression, catatonic stupor, and EEG changes in hyperparathyroidism. Psychol Med. 1973 Nov;3(4):509–515. [PubMed]
  • FREEMAN JG. Acute intermittent porphyria; associated psychiatric symptoms treated by electroshock. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1951 Oct 24;26(22):401–406. [PubMed]
  • Offenstadt G, Bienvenu MP, Héricord P, Tawill S, Amstutz P. Catatonie grave, schizophrénie et coproporphyrie héréditaire. Sem Hop. 1980 Nov 8;56(41-42):1727–1730. [PubMed]
  • Steinman TI, Yager HM. Catatonia in uremia. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Jul;89(1):74–75. [PubMed]
  • Sher A, Andersen JM, Bhatia SC. Primidone-induced catatonic schizophrenia. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1983 Jul-Aug;17(7-8):551–552. [PubMed]
  • Weddington WW, Jr, Marks RC, Verghese JP. Disulfiram encephalopathy as a cause of the catatonia syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Oct;137(10):1217–1219. [PubMed]
  • Good MI. Catatonialike symptomatology and withdrawal dyskinesias. Am J Psychiatry. 1976 Dec;133(12):1454–1456. [PubMed]
  • Engquist A, Jørgensen BC, Andersen HB. Catatonia after epidural morphine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1981 Oct;25(5):445–446. [PubMed]
  • MAY RH. Catatonic-like states following phenothiazine therapy. Am J Psychiatry. 1959 Jun;115(12):1119–1120. [PubMed]
  • Gelenberg AJ, Mandel MR. Catatonic reactions to high-potency neuroleptic drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Aug;34(8):947–950. [PubMed]
  • Weinberger DR, Kelly MJ. Catatonia and malignant syndrome: a possible complication of neuroleptic administration. Report of a case involving haloperidol. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1977 Oct;165(4):263–268. [PubMed]
  • Warner AM, Pierozynski G. Pseudocatatonia associated with abuse of amphetamine and cannabis. Postgrad Med. 1977 Jan;61(1):275–277. [PubMed]
  • Janowsky DS, el-Yousel MK, Davis JM, Sekerke HJ. Provocation of schizophrenic symptoms by intravenous administration of methylphenidate. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973 Feb;28(2):185–191. [PubMed]
  • SCHWAB JJ, BARROW MV. A REACTION TO ORGANIC FLUORIDES SIMULATING CLASSICAL CATATONIA. Am J Psychiatry. 1964 Jun;120:1196–1197. [PubMed]
  • Sullivan BJ, Dickerman JD. Steroid-associated catatonia: report of a case. Pediatrics. 1979 Apr;63(4):677–679. [PubMed]
  • Hanson GD, Brown MJ. Waxy flexibility in a postpartum woman--a case report and review of the catatonic syndrome. Psychiatr Q. 1973;47(1):95–103. [PubMed]
  • Thompson GN. Cerebral lesions simulating schizophrenia: three case reports. Biol Psychiatry. 1970 Jan;2(1):59–64. [PubMed]
  • Solomon JG. Distinguishing catatonia: a case report. Psychosomatics. 1978 May;19(5):299–307. [PubMed]
  • Tippin J, Dunner FJ. Biparietal infarctions in a patient with Catatonia. Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Oct;138(10):1386–1387. [PubMed]
  • Gangadhar BN, Keshavan MS, Goswami U, Rao TV. Cortical venous thrombosis presenting as catatonia: a clinicopathologic report. J Clin Psychiatry. 1983 Mar;44(3):109–110. [PubMed]
  • Read SL. Catatonia in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: case report. J Clin Psychiatry. 1983 Sep;44(9):343–344. [PubMed]
  • de Morsier G. Trois cas de tumeur du septum, développées dans le ventricule latéral, avec troubles du comportement. "Schizophrénie" et tumeur cérébrale. Encephale. 1968 Mar-Apr;57(2):181–193. [PubMed]
  • Malamud N. Psychiatric disorder with intracranial tumors of limbic system. Arch Neurol. 1967 Aug;17(2):113–123. [PubMed]
  • NEWMANN MA. Periventricular diffuse pinealoma: report of a case with clinical features of catatonic schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1955 Mar;121(3):193–204. [PubMed]
  • Schaumburg HH, Suzuki K. Non-specific familial presenile dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1968 Oct;31(5):479–486. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • METTLER FA. Perceptual capacity, functions of the corpus striatum and schizophrenia. Psychiatr Q. 1955;29(1):89–111. [PubMed]
  • Thompson SW, Greenhouse AH. Petit mal status in adults. Ann Intern Med. 1968 Jun;68(6):1271–1279. [PubMed]
  • Kramer MS. Menstrual epileptoid psychosis in an adolescent girl. Am J Dis Child. 1977 Mar;131(3):316–317. [PubMed]
  • Shah P, Kaplan SL. Catatonic symptoms in a child with epilepsy. Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Jun;137(6):738–739. [PubMed]
  • Raskin DE, Frank SW. Herpes encephalitis with catatonic stupor. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974 Oct;31(4):544–546. [PubMed]
  • BRAGE D, PEDACE EA, NAPOLITANO AG. Estupor hipotalamico por hidatide diencefalohipofisaria: mutismo aquinetico de Cairns. Prensa Med Argent. 1956 Sep 28;43(39):2954–2959. [PubMed]
  • Durrant W. Catatonia after malaria. Br Med J. 1977 Oct 1;2(6091):893–893. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kim CH, Perlstein MA. Encephalitis with catatonic schizophrenic symptoms. IMJ Ill Med J. 1970 Nov;138(5):503–507. [PubMed]
  • Koehler K, Jakumeit U. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as Leonhard's speech-prompt catatonia. Br J Psychiatry. 1976 Jul;129:29–31. [PubMed]
  • Breakey WR, Kala AK. Typhoid catatonia responsive to ECT. Br Med J. 1977 Aug 6;2(6083):357–359. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woods SW. Catatonia in a patient with subdural hematomas. Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Aug;137(8):983–984. [PubMed]
  • Ruff RL, Russakoff LM. Catatonia with frontal lobe atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1980 Feb;43(2):185–187. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • FOLTZ EL, WARD AA., Jr Communicating hydrocephalus from subarachnoid bleeding. J Neurosurg. 1956 Nov;13(6):546–566. [PubMed]
  • Matthews WB. Multiple sclerosis presenting with acute remitting psychiatric symptoms. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1979 Sep;42(9):859–863. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Abrams R, Taylor MA. Catatonia. A prospective clinical study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976 May;33(5):579–581. [PubMed]
  • Taylor MA, Abrams R. The phenomenology of mania. A new look at some old patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973 Oct;29(4):520–522. [PubMed]
  • Taylor MA, Abrams R. Catatonia. Prevalence and importance in the manic phase of manic-depressive illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977 Oct;34(10):1223–1225. [PubMed]
  • Waziri R. Catatonia. JAMA. 1977 Dec 5;238(23):2495–2496. [PubMed]
  • Henderson VW, Wooten GF. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a pathogenetic role for dopamine receptor blockade? Neurology. 1981 Feb;31(2):132–137. [PubMed]
  • Granato JE, Stern BJ, Ringel A, Karim AH, Krumholz A, Coyle J, Adler S. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: successful treatment with dantrolene and bromocriptine. Ann Neurol. 1983 Jul;14(1):89–90. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group