PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of brheartjLink to Publisher's site
 
Br Heart J. 1993 February; 69(2): 183–187.
PMCID: PMC1024948

Exercise, fibrinogen, and other risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. Caerphilly Prospective Heart Disease Study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE--To examine the associations between physical activity and a wide range of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease including fibrinogen concentration and viscosity. DESIGN--Cross sectional evidence from the 2398 men aged 50-64 years in the Caerphilly Prospective Heart Disease Study. METHODS--Validated questionnaires were used to quantify energy expenditure on leisure activities and to grade activities related to occupation. Risk factors for heart disease examined included blood pressure, lipids, fibrinogen, and plasma viscosity. Possible confounding variables included smoking, employment, and prevalent heart disease (angina, previous myocardial infarction, and electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemia). RESULTS--Fibrinogen concentration was lower by 0.24 g/l and viscosity by 0.026 cP in the third of men who were most active in leisure activities (about 0.25 x 1 SD). A weak positive relation was found with high density lipoprotein cholesterol, but none with total cholesterol or fasting glucose concentrations or blood pressure. Triglyceride concentrations seem to be substantially lower in the most active men, although the evidence for this is not consistent. Work related activity showed relation with the lipid concentration but not with the haemostatic tests. CONCLUSIONS--Leisure activities of all levels seem to affect haemostatic and lipid factors beneficially. These effects correspond to a difference in the risk of heart disease for an active man and a sedentary man of at least 7% or 8%. Fasting triglyceride concentrations have already been shown to be strongly predictive of heart disease in this cohort of men, and the effect of exercise on this factor is also likely to confer benefit.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (915K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Morris JN, Chave SP, Adam C, Sirey C, Epstein L, Sheehan DJ. Vigorous exercise in leisure-time and the incidence of coronary heart-disease. Lancet. 1973 Feb 17;1(7799):333–339. [PubMed]
  • Morris JN, Everitt MG, Pollard R, Chave SP, Semmence AM. Vigorous exercise in leisure-time: protection against coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1980 Dec 6;2(8206):1207–1210. [PubMed]
  • Morris JN, Clayton DG, Everitt MG, Semmence AM, Burgess EH. Exercise in leisure time: coronary attack and death rates. Br Heart J. 1990 Jun;63(6):325–334. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shaper AG, Wannamethee G, Weatherall R. Physical activity and ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged British men. Br Heart J. 1991 Nov;66(5):384–394. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Powell KE, Thompson PD, Caspersen CJ, Kendrick JS. Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annu Rev Public Health. 1987;8:253–287. [PubMed]
  • Berlin JA, Colditz GA. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Oct;132(4):612–628. [PubMed]
  • Connelly JB, Cooper JA, Meade TW. Strenuous exercise, plasma fibrinogen, and factor VII activity. Br Heart J. 1992 May;67(5):351–354. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Jr, Schucker B, Knudsen J, Leon AS, Debacker G. A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities. J Chronic Dis. 1978;31(12):741–755. [PubMed]
  • SHAPIRO S, WEINBLATT E, FRANK CW, SAGER RV. THE H.I.P. STUDY OF INCIDENCE AND PROGNOSIS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE; PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON INCIDENCE OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ANGINA. J Chronic Dis. 1965 Jun;18:527–558. [PubMed]
  • Yarnell JW, Fehily AM, Milbank JE, Sweetnam PM, Walker CL. A short dietary questionnaire for use in an epidemiological survey: comparison with weighed dietary records. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1983 Apr;37(2):103–112. [PubMed]
  • Fehily AM, Yarnell JW, Butland BK. Diet and ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly Study. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1987 Oct;41(5):319–326. [PubMed]
  • Blair SN, Kohl HW, 3rd, Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Clark DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA. 1989 Nov 3;262(17):2395–2401. [PubMed]
  • Ekelund LG, Haskell WL, Johnson JL, Whaley FS, Criqui MH, Sheps DS. Physical fitness as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic North American men. The Lipid Research Clinics Mortality Follow-up Study. N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 24;319(21):1379–1384. [PubMed]
  • Folsom AR, Caspersen CJ, Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Jr, Luepker RV, Gomez-Marin O, Gillum RF, Blackburn H. Leisure time physical activity and its relationship to coronary risk factors in a population-based sample. The Minnesota Heart Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Apr;121(4):570–579. [PubMed]
  • Garcia-Palmieri MR, Costas R, Jr, Cruz-Vidal M, Sorlie PD, Havlik RJ. Increased physical activity: a protective factor against heart attacks in Puerto Rico. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Oct;50(4):749–755. [PubMed]
  • Kannel WB, Sorlie P. Some health benefits of physical activity. The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med. 1979 Aug;139(8):857–861. [PubMed]
  • Leon AS, Connett J, Jacobs DR, Jr, Rauramaa R. Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. JAMA. 1987 Nov 6;258(17):2388–2395. [PubMed]
  • Salonen JT, Slater JS, Tuomilehto J, Rauramaa R. Leisure time and occupational physical activity: risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jan;127(1):87–94. [PubMed]
  • Hagberg JM, Seals DR. Exercise training and hypertension. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1986;711:131–136. [PubMed]
  • Blumenthal JA, Siegel WC, Appelbaum M. Failure of exercise to reduce blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Results of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1991 Oct 16;266(15):2098–2104. [PubMed]
  • Wood PD, Haskell W, Klein H, Lewis S, Stern MP, Farquhar JW. The distribution of plasma lipoproteins in middle-aged male runners. Metabolism. 1976 Nov;25(11):1249–1257. [PubMed]
  • Cauley JA, Kriska AM, LaPorte RE, Sandler RB, Pambianco G. A two year randomized exercise trial in older women: effects on HDL-cholesterol. Atherosclerosis. 1987 Aug;66(3):247–258. [PubMed]
  • Bainton D, Miller NE, Bolton CH, Yarnell JW, Sweetnam PM, Baker IA, Lewis B, Elwood PC. Plasma triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of ischaemic heart disease in British men. The Caerphilly and Speedwell Collaborative Heart Disease Studies. Br Heart J. 1992 Jul;68(1):60–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Haskell WL. The influence of exercise training on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in health and disease. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1986;711:25–37. [PubMed]
  • Rosengren A, Wilhelmsen L, Welin L, Tsipogianni A, Teger-Nilsson AC, Wedel H. Social influences and cardiovascular risk factors as determinants of plasma fibrinogen concentration in a general population sample of middle aged men. BMJ. 1990 Mar 10;300(6725):634–638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Charm SE, Paz H, Kurland GS. Reduced plasma viscosity among joggers compared with non-joggers. Biorheology. 1979;16(3):185–189. [PubMed]
  • Ernst E. Changes in blood rheology produced by exercise. JAMA. 1985 May 24;253(20):2962–2963. [PubMed]
  • Ernst E. Influence of regular physical activity on blood rheology. Eur Heart J. 1987 Oct;8 (Suppl G):59–62. [PubMed]
  • Ernst EE, Matrai A. Intermittent claudication, exercise, and blood rheology. Circulation. 1987 Nov;76(5):1110–1114. [PubMed]

Articles from British Heart Journal are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group