Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jmedgeneJournal of Medical GeneticsVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Med Genet. 1992 April; 29(4): 266–268.
PMCID: PMC1015930

The Baller-Gerold syndrome.


A case of severe craniosynostosis-radial aplasia (Baller-Gerold) syndrome is described in a newborn male, following a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and intrauterine growth retardation. Death occurred after two hours owing to a prolonged apnoeic spell. Extensive agenesis of the frontal and parietal bones, resulting in a very large fontanelle, in addition to coronal bilateral craniosynostosis was observed at necropsy. There was also bilateral radial agenesis, oligodactyly of the hands and feet, a midline facial angioma, and a scrotally positioned anus, all of which have been described in some of the 10 previously reported cases. Microcephaly, erythroblastosis of the liver, and pancreatic islet cell hypertrophy were also noted.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (931K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • GEROLD M. Frakturheilung bei einem seltenen Fall kongenitaler Anomalie der oberen Gliedmassen. Zentralbl Chir. 1959 May 23;84(21):831–834. [PubMed]
  • Greitzer LJ, Jones KL, Schnall BS, Smith DW. Craniosynostosis--radial aplasia syndrome. J Pediatr. 1974 May;84(5):723–724. [PubMed]
  • Feingold M, Sklower SL, Willner JP, Desnick RH, Cohen MM. Craniosynostosis-radial aplasia: Baller-Gerold syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1979 Dec;133(12):1279–1280. [PubMed]
  • Woon KC, Kokich VG, Clarren SK, Cohen MM., Jr Craniosynostosis with associated cranial base anomalies: a morphologic and histologic study of affected like-sexed twins. Teratology. 1980 Aug;22(1):23–35. [PubMed]
  • Anyane-Yeboa K, Gunning L, Bloom AD. Baller-Gerold syndrome craniosynostosis-radial aplasia syndrome. Clin Genet. 1980 Feb;17(2):161–166. [PubMed]
  • Pelias MZ, Superneau DW, Thurmon TF. Brief clinical report: a sixth report (eighth case) of craniosynostosis-radial aplasia (Baller-Gerold) syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1981;10(2):133–139. [PubMed]
  • Huson SM, Rodgers CS, Hall CM, Winter RM. The Baller-Gerold syndrome: phenotypic and cytogenetic overlap with Roberts syndrome. J Med Genet. 1990 Jun;27(6):371–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boudreaux JM, Colon MA, Lorusso GD, Parro EA, Pelias MZ. Baller-Gerold syndrome: an 11th case of craniosynostosis and radial aplasia. Am J Med Genet. 1990 Dec;37(4):447–450. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Medical Genetics are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group