Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of annrheumdAnnals of the Rheumatic DiseasesVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 January; 50(1): 36–40.
PMCID: PMC1004322

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.


The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine inhalation in a consecutive series of 21 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome was studied prospectively. Slight to severe BHR was seen in 12/20 (60%) of the patients. Ten of 12 patients with BHR (83%) had a non-productive cough, wheezing, or intermittent breathlessness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was more common in patients with extraglandular symptoms (10/14, 71%) than in those with only glandular symptoms (29%). Spirometrically 29% (6/21) of the patients had 'small airways' disease', and all those had BHR. Of 6/21 (29%) who had diffuse interstitial lung disease, two had BHR. Three of the four patients with obstructive lung function were challenged with methacholine and two of them had BHR. Only two patients with BHR had normal spirometry findings. The data showed that respiratory disease--mostly mild or moderate but even severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness--is commonly seen in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (865K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Moutsopoulos HM, Chused TM, Mann DL, Klippel JH, Fauci AS, Frank MM, Lawley TJ, Hamburger MI. Sjögren's syndrome (Sicca syndrome): current issues. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Feb;92(2 Pt 1):212–226. [PubMed]
  • Oxholm P, Bundgaard A, Birk Madsen E, Manthorpe R, Vejlø Rasmussen F. Pulmonary function in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Rheumatol Int. 1982;2(4):179–181. [PubMed]
  • Constantopoulos SH, Moutsopoulos HM. Respiratory involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: is it a problem? Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1986;61:146–150. [PubMed]
  • Segal I, Fink G, Machtey I, Gura V, Spitzer SA. Pulmonary function abnormalities in Sjögren's syndrome and the sicca complex. Thorax. 1981 Apr;36(4):286–289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heintze U, Birkhed D, Björn H. Secretion rate and buffer effect of resting and stimulated whole saliva as a function of age and sex. Swed Dent J. 1983;7(6):227–238. [PubMed]
  • Chisholm DM, Mason DK. Labial salivary gland biopsy in Sjögren's disease. J Clin Pathol. 1968 Sep;21(5):656–660. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hedenström H, Malmberg P, Agarwal K. Reference values for lung function tests in females. Regression equations with smoking variables. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir. 1985 Nov-Dec;21(6):551–557. [PubMed]
  • Hedenström H, Malmberg P, Fridriksson HV. Reference values for lung function tests in men: regression equations with smoking variables. Ups J Med Sci. 1986;91(3):299–310. [PubMed]
  • Hargreave FE, Ryan G, Thomson NC, O'Byrne PM, Latimer K, Juniper EF. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine or methacholine in asthma: measurement and clinical significance. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1982;121:79–88. [PubMed]
  • Juniper EF, Frith PA, Hargreave FE. Long-term stability of bronchial responsiveness to histamine. Thorax. 1982 Apr;37(4):288–291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Juniper EF, Frith PA, Hargreave FE. Airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine: relationship to minimum treatment to control symptoms of asthma. Thorax. 1981 Aug;36(8):575–579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giffon E, Orehek J, Vervloet D, Arnaud A, Charpin J. Asthma without airway hyperresponsiveness to carbachol. Eur J Respir Dis. 1987 Apr;70(4):229–233. [PubMed]
  • Empey DW, Laitinen LA, Jacobs L, Gold WM, Nadel JA. Mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity in normal subjects after upper respiratory tract infection. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1976 Feb;113(2):131–139. [PubMed]
  • Richardson JB. Airways smooth muscle. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987 Sep;80(3 Pt 2):409–411. [PubMed]
  • Constantopoulos SH, Papadimitriou CS, Moutsopoulos HM. Respiratory manifestations in primary Sjögren's syndrome. A clinical, functional, and histologic study. Chest. 1985 Aug;88(2):226–229. [PubMed]
  • Hatron PY, Wallaert B, Gosset D, Tonnel AB, Gosselin B, Voisin C, Devulder B. Subclinical lung inflammation in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analysis findings and characteristics of the disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Nov;30(11):1226–1231. [PubMed]
  • Anderson LG, Talal N. The spectrum of benign to malignant lymphoproliferation in Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 1972 Feb;10(2):199–221. [PubMed]
  • Ziza JM, Kaplan G, Salomon C, Kahn MF. Fibroses pulmonaires graves révélatrices d'un syndrome de Gougerot-Sjögren primitif. A propos de cinq observations, dont deux mortelles. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 1986;137(1):46–50. [PubMed]
  • Andonopoulos AP, Constantopoulos SH, Drosos AA, Moutsopoulos HM. Pulmonary function of nonsmoking patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the presence and absence of secondary Sjögren's syndrome, a controlled study. Respiration. 1988;53(4):251–258. [PubMed]
  • Andonopoulos AP, Constantopoulos SH, Drosos AA, Moutsopoulos HM. Pulmonary function of nonsmoking patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the presence and absence of secondary Sjögren's syndrome, a controlled study. Respiration. 1988;53(4):251–258. [PubMed]
  • Chung KF. Role of inflammation in the hyperreactivity of the airways in asthma. Thorax. 1986 Sep;41(9):657–662. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barnes PJ. Asthma as an axon reflex. Lancet. 1986 Feb 1;1(8475):242–245. [PubMed]
  • Neu IS. Stoffwechselaspekte der Multiplen Sklerose. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1985 Jan 31;135(1-2):20–22. [PubMed]

Articles from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group