Sample of Studies and Selection Criteria
We searched for studies through the simultaneous use of several strategies. First, we searched electronic reference databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, AIDSearch, CINAHL, Dissertation Abstracts Online, ERIC) using search terms related to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (i.e., human or acquired and immu* and syndrome or virus, or AIDS, or HIV; sexually and transmitted and disease* or infection, or STD, or STI), intervention (intervene* or prevent*) and sexuality (sex*, condom*, or intercourse). Second, we checked HIV-related listservs, the NIH database of grant awardees, and conference proceedings. We also requested papers from individual researchers conducting HIV interventions and searched the reference lists of relevant, obtained papers. Finally, we manually searched journals likely to publish intervention results (e.g., American Journal of Public Health, Health Psychology, JAMA). These supplemental strategies ensured the comprehensiveness of the reference database searches. Studies that fulfilled the search criteria and that were available as of May 2003 were included.
Studies were included if they (1) examined a deliberate HIV-risk-reduction strategy in a non-perinatal context; (2) used a randomized controlled trial or a quasi-experimental design with rigorous controls (e.g., participants did not self-select into conditions); (3) measured a frequency-related marker (i.e., presence of sexual activity, frequency of intercourse, and number of partners) following the intervention; and (4) provided sufficient information to calculate effect size (ES) estimates. For the purposes of this review, a deliberate HIV-risk-reduction strategy was defined as at least 15 minutes of HIV-relevant instruction. Of the initially relevant articles, 22 had insufficient information for the calculation of effect sizes, and these study authors were contacted. Twelve authors (55%) sent requested information, and these studies were included.
The use of these criteria yielded 174 studies, which investigated 206 separate interventions [see references 23
for included manuscripts, some of which included more than one study]. Of the 174 studies, 32 were not published at the time the search was closed (May, 2003). In total, these interventions began with a total of 149,660 participants; the average retention rate was 78%, leaving 116,735 participants for analysis. Consistent with meta-analytic convention [125
], each intervention was treated as an individual study during analysis.
Two raters independently coded each study for descriptive purposes and to determine whether variation in ESs can be attributed to features of the studies. The following dimensions were coded: (1) sample demographics (e.g., ethnicity, gender), (2) risk characteristics (e.g., sex trade, drug or alcohol use, men who have sex with men (MSM)), (3) HIV serostatus, (4) design and measurement specifics (e.g., number of follow-ups), and (5) content of control and intervention condition(s) (e.g., total amount of time spent across all sessions). Finally, we also coded studies according to whether they provide information, motivational, and/or behavioral skills components, consistent with the IMB model [18
Across the study- and intervention-level categorical dimensions, coders agreed on the majority of judgments (M agreement = 83%). Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Effective reliability for the continuous variables was calculated by the Spearman-Brown result, which takes into account the mean interjudge correlation as well as the number of judges. For these variables, the effective reliability ranged from .60 to 1.00 (M = .86).
When studies did not include sufficient data regarding the moderators of interest, values were imputed. When only an age range or category was given (and not the mean age of the sample), we used the midpoint of the age category as the mean age of the sample. In addition, if authors did not report that their sample included MSM, IDU, sex traders or commercial sex workers, and/or excessive alcohol users, we imputed a zero value for these characteristics, assuming no prevalence.
Frequency-Related Study Outcomes and Effect Size Derivation
We calculated individual ESs for all frequency-related measures reported in each of the 206 separate interventions examined across the 174 included studies. Specifically, we analyzed self-reported sexual frequency measures including (1) number of sexual occasions, defined as the number of episodes of penetrative intercourse (vaginal or anal); (2) number of sexual partners, defined as the number of unique partners an individual had in a given amount of time; and (3) sexual activity status, defined as having or not having some type of intercourse.
The number of sexual occasions and partners were continuous “counts” whereas sexual activity status was dichotomous. Because two of the three outcomes were continuous rather than dichotomous, the ES calculated was the standardized mean difference (d
); odds ratios are meant for cases in which both the independent and the dependent variable are categorical. We represented the third dimension in d
for ease of comparison between the categories. The pooled standard deviation (SD) served as the denominator in the ES calculation, when it was available, or, in a minority of cases, another form of SD (e.g., the SD of the paired comparisons) was used because the pooled SD was not available and could not be calculated from the report. Other available statistical information (e.g., F
values) was used instead or as a supplement to means and SDs [130
]. In calculating the effect sizes, we used statistics that controlled for baseline differences. If a study reported a significant difference on an outcome between the studied groups at baseline and did not control for this difference in analyses of the post-intervention outcomes, we omitted the outcome in question. When studies reported odds ratios, we transformed them to d
using the Cox transformation [131
]. Within a follow-up measurement assessment, when the questions implied different intervals (e.g., previous week vs. previous month), we used the data from the interval that best matched the period since the end of the intervention.
The sign of each effect size was set so that it was positive when the outcome favored risk reduction and effect sizes were corrected for sample size bias [132
]. Forty-eight reports provided statistics separately by different groupings (e.g., by gender or race). When this occurred, effect sizes from each grouping were included in the analysis. As such, some studies contributed more than one effect size for the same outcome. Effect sizes were calculated on the measures provided at the first available follow-up after the intervention. When available, we also calculated d
for condom use, following the same procedures as above. Analyses followed fixed- and random-effects assumptions [133
] to evaluate the mean tendencies for each outcome variable, and fixed-effects assumptions to test whether features of the studies could explain variability in the magnitude of effect sizes [134
1. Semann S, Des Jarlais DC, Sogolow E, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of HIV prevention interventions on the sex behaviors of drug users in the United States. J Acq Immun Def Synd. 2002;30:73–93. [PubMed] 2. Reinking D, van Zessen G, Kretzschmar M, Brouwers H, et al. Social transmission routes of HIV: A combined sexual network and life course perspective. Patient Educ Couns. 1994;24:289–97. [PubMed] 3. Cantania JA. Relationship of sexual mixing across age and ethnic groups to herpes simplex virus-2 among unmarried heterosexual adults with multiple sexual partners. Health Psych. 1996;15:362–70. [PubMed] 4. Parker M, Ward H, Day S. Sexual networks and the transmission of HIV in London. J Biosoc Sci. 1998;30:63–83. [PubMed] 5. Friedman SR, Flom PL, Kottiri BJ, Neaigus A, Sandoval M, Curtis R, Des Jarlais DC, Zenilman JM. Consistent condom use in the heterosexual relationships of young adults who live in a high-HIV-risk neighbourhood and do not use “hard drugs” AIDS Care. 2001;13:285–96. [PubMed] 6. Morris M, Zavisca J, Dean L. Social and sexual networks: Their role in the spread of HIV/AIDS among young gay men. AIDS Educ Prev. 1995;7:24–35. [PubMed] 7. Cleland J, Boerma JT, Carael M, Weir SS. Monitoring sexual behaviour in general populations: A synthesis of lessons of the past decade. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80(Suppl II):ii1–ii7. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 8. Aral SO. Sexual behavior in sexually transmitted disease research: An overview. Sex Transm Dis. 1994;21(Suppl II):S59–64. [PubMed]
9. Eng TR, Butler WT. The hidden epidemic: Confronting sexually transmitted diseases. Wash DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
10. Peterman TA, Lin LS, Newman DR, Kamb ML, Bolan G, Zenilman J, Douglas JM, Rogers J, Malotte CK. Does measured behavior reflect STD risk? An analysis of data from a randomized controlled behavioral intervention study. Project RESPECT Study Group. Sex Transm Dis. 2000;27:446–51. [PubMed] 11. Pinkerton SD, Chesson HW, Layde PM. Utility of behavioral changes as markers of sexually transmitted disease risk reduction in sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention trials. J AIDS. 2002;31:71–9. [PubMed] 12. Simbayi LC, Chauveau J, Shisana O. Behavioural responses of South African youth to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: A nationwide survey. AIDS Care. 2004;16:605–618. [PubMed] 18. Fisher JD, Fisher WA. Changing AIDS-risk behavior. Psych Bulletin. 1992;111:455–474. [PubMed]
19. Fisher JD, Fisher WA. Theoretical approaches to individual-level change in HIV risk behavior. In: DiClemente RJ, Peterson JL, editors. Handbook of HIV Prevention. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000. pp. 3–55.
20. Avants SK, Margolin A, Usubiaga MH, Doebrick C. Targeting HIV-related outcomes with intravenous drug users maintained on methadone: A randomized clinical trial of a harm reduction group therapy. J Sub Ab Treat. 2004;26:67–78. [PubMed] 21. Margolin A, Avants SK, Warburton LA, Hawkins KA, Shi J. A randomized clinical trial of a manual-guided risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive injection drug users. Health Psych. 2003;22:223–228. [PubMed]
22. Fisher WA, Fisher JD, Harman J. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model: A general social psychological approach to understanding and promoting health behavior. In: Suls J, Wallston KA, editors. Social Psychological Foundations of Health and Illness. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2003. pp. 82–106.
23. St Lawrence JS, Crosby RA, Brasfield TL, O’Bannon RE., 3rd Reducing STD and HIV risk behavior of substance-dependent adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(4):1010–1021. [PubMed]
24. Baldwin JI, Whiteley S, Baldwin JD. Changing AIDS and fertility related behavior: The effectiveness of sexual education. J Sex Res. 1990;27(2):245–262.
25. Basen-Engquist K, Coyle KK, Parcel GS, et al. School-wide effects of a multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy prevention program for high school students. Health Educ Behav. 2001;28(2):166–185. [PubMed] 26. Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Tschann JM. Evaluation of a knowledge and cognitive behavioral skills building intervention to prevent STDs and HIV infection in high school students. Adolescence. 1997;32(125):25–42. [PubMed] 27. Branson BM, Peterman TA, Cannon RO, Ransom R, Zaidi AA. Group counseling to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV: A randomized controlled trial. Sex Transm Dis. 1998;25(10):553–560. [PubMed] 28. Brieger WR, Delano GE, Lane CG, Oladepo O, Oyediran KA. West African Youth Initiative: Outcome of a reproductive health education program. J Adolesc Health. 2001;29(6):436–446. [PubMed] 29. Calsyn DA, Saxon AJ, Freeman G, Jr, Whittaker S. Ineffectiveness of AIDS education and HIV antibody testing in reducing high-risk behaviors among injection drug users. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(4):573–575. [PubMed] 30. Carey MP, Maisto SA, Kalichman SC, Forsyth AD, Wright EM, Johnson BT. Enhancing motivation to reduce the risk of HIV infection for economically disadvantaged urban women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65(4):531–541. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
31. Chesniak-Phippis L. Examining the factors that influence sexual activity and condom use among African American youth [dissertation] Wichita, Kansas: Wichita State University; 2002.
32. Chitwood DD, Inciardi JA, McBride DC, McCoy HV, Trapido EA. Community Approach to AIDS Intervention. New York: Greenwood Press; 1991.
33. Choi KH, Lew S, Vittinghoff E, Catnia JA, Barrett DC, Coates TJ. The efficacy of brief group counseling in HIV risk reduction among homosexual Asian and Pacific Islander men. AIDS. 1996;10:81–87. [PubMed] 34. Cohen DA, MacKinnon DP, Dent C, Mason HC, Sullivan E. Group counseling at STD clinics to promote use of condoms. Public Health Rep. 1992;107(6):727–731. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
35. Cohen ELS. High-risk sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use: An intervention for college students [dissertation] Austin, Texas: University of Texas at Austin; 2000.
36. Collins C, Kohler C, DiClemente R, Wang MQ. Evaluation of the exposure effects of a theory-based street outreach HIV intervention on African-American drug users. Eval Program Plann. 1999;22(3):279–293.
37. Cottler LB, Leukefeld C, Hoffman J, et al. Effectiveness of HIV risk reduction initiatives among out of treatment non-injection drug users. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1998;30(3):279–290. [PubMed] 38. Cottler LB, Compton WM, Abdallah AB, et al. Peer-delivered interventions reduce HIV risk behaviors among out-of-treatment drug abusers. Public Health Rep. 1998;113(Supplement 1):31–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 39. Coyle K, Basen-Engquist K, Kirby D, et al. Short-term impact of Safer Choices: A multicomponent, school-based HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention program. J Sch Health. 1999;69(5):181–188. [PubMed] 40. Dancy BL, Marcantonio R, Norr K. The long-term effectiveness of an HIV prevention intervention for low-income African American women. AIDS Educ Prev. 2000;12(2):113–125. [PubMed] 41. Danielson R, Marcy S, Plunkett A, Wiest W, Greenlick MR. Reproductive health counseling for young men: What does it do? Fam Plann Perspect. 1990;22(3):115–121. [PubMed] 42. Ehrhardt AA, Exner TM, Hoffman S, et al. A gender-specific HIV/STD risk reduction intervention for women in a health care setting: Short- and long-term results of a randomized clinical trial. AIDS Care. 2002;14(2):147–161. [PubMed] 43. El-Bassel N, Schilling RF. 15-Month follow-up of women methadone patients taught skills to reduce heterosexual HIV transmission. Public Health Rep. 1992;107(5):500–504. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 44. Fawole IO, Asuzu MC, Oduntan SO, Brieger WR. A school-based AIDS education programme for secondary school students in Nigeria: A review of effectiveness. Health Educ Res. 1999;14(5):675–683. [PubMed]
45. Fraser CM. The impact of an undergraduate HIV/AIDS education course on students’ AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk behaviour [dissertation] Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada: Simon Fraser University; 1996.
46. Gibson DR, Lovelle-Drache J, Young M, Hudes ES, Sorenson JL. Effectiveness of brief counseling in reducing HIV risk behavior in injecting drug users: Final results of randomized trials of counseling with and without HIV testing. AIDS Behav. 1999;3(1):3–12.
47. Gilliam A, Seltzer R. The efficacy of educational movies on AIDS knowledge and attitudes among college students. J Am Coll Health. 1989;37:261–265. [PubMed] 48. Goertzel T, Bluebond-Langner M. What is the impact of a campus AIDS education course? J Am Coll Health. 1991;40(1):87–92. [PubMed] 49. Gold RS, Rosenthal DA. Examining self-justifications for unsafe sex as a technique of AIDS education: The importance of personal relevance. Int J STD AIDS. 1998;9:208–213. [PubMed] 50. The Voluntary HIV-1 Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group. Efficacy of voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing in individuals and couples in Kenya, Tanzania, and Trinidad: A randomized trial. Lancet. 2000;356:103–112. [PubMed]
51. Hadden BR. An HIV/AIDS prevention intervention with female and male STD patients in a peri-urban settlement in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. KwaZulu Natal, South Africa: University of Natal; Sep, 1997.
52. Harvey B, Stuart J, Swan T. Evaluation of a drama-in-education programme to increase AIDS awareness in South African high schools: A randomized community intervention trial. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11(2):105–111. [PubMed]
53. Hernandez JT, Smith FJ. Abstinence, protection, and decision-making: Experimental trials on prototypic AIDS programs. Health Educ Res. 1990;5(3):309–320.
54. Hobfoll SE, Jackson AP, Lavin J, Johnson RJ, Schroder KE. Effects and generalizability of communally oriented HIV-AIDS prevention versus general health promotion groups for single, inner-city women in urban clinics. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(4):950–960. [PubMed] 55. Hubbard BM, Giese ML, Rainey J. A replication study of Reducing the Risk, a theory-based sexuality curriculum for adolescents. J Sch Health. 1998;68(6):243–247. [PubMed] 56. Kamali A, Quigley M, Nakiyingi J, et al. Syndromic management of sexually-transmitted infections and behaviour change interventions on transmission of HIV-1 in rural Uganda: A community randomized trial. Lancet. 2003;361(9358):645–652. [PubMed] 57. Kamb ML, Fishbein M, Douglas JM, et al. Efficacy of risk-reduction counseling to prevent human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases. J Am Med Assoc. 1998;280(13):1161–1167. [PubMed] 58. Kelly J, St Lawrence J, Hood H, Brasfield T. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57(1):60–67. [PubMed] 59. Kelly J, Lawrence J, Diaz Y, et al. HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. Am J Public Health. 1991;81(2):168–171. [PubMed] 60. Kelly J, Murphy DA, Washington CD, et al. The effects of HIV/AIDS intervention groups for high-risk women in urban clinics. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(12):1918–1922. [PubMed] 61. Kelly J, McAuliffe T, Sikkema K, et al. Reduction in risk behavior among adults with severe mental illness who learned to advocate for HIV prevention. Psychiatr Serv. 1997;48(10):1283–1288. [PubMed] 62. Kelly J, Murphy D, Sikkema K, et al. Randomised, controlled, community-level HIV-prevention intervention for sexual-risk behaviour among homosexual men in U.S. cities. Lancet. 1997;350:1500–1505. [PubMed] 63. Kindberg T, Christennson B. Changing Swedish students’ attitudes in relation to the AIDS epidemic. Health Educ Res. 1994;9(2):171–181. [PubMed] 64. Kipke M, Boyer C, Hein K. An evaluation of an AIDS risk reduction education and skills training (ARREST) program. J Adolesc Health. 1993;14(7):533–539. [PubMed] 65. Kirby D, Korpi M, Adivi C, Weissman J. An impact evaluation of Project SNAPP: An AIDS and pregnancy prevention middle school program. AIDS Educ Prev. 1997;9(Supplement A):44–61. [PubMed] 66. Kwiatkowski CF, Stober DR, Booth DR, Zhang Y. Predictors of increased condom use following HIV intervention with heterosexually active drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998:1–6. [PubMed] 67. MacNeil JM, Mberesero F, Kilonzo G. Is care and support associated with preventive behaviour among people with HIV? AIDS Care. 1999;11(5):537–546. [PubMed] 68. Magnani RJ, Gaffikin L, de-Aquino EM, Seiber EE, Almeida MC, Lipovsek V. Impact of an integrated adolescent reproductive health program in Brazil. Stud Fam Plann. 2001;32(3):230–243. [PubMed] 69. Main DS, Iverson DC, McGLoin J, et al. Preventing HIV infection among adolescents: Evaluation of a school-based education program. Prev Med. 1994;23:409–417. [PubMed] 70. Mansfield C, Conroy M, Emans S, Woods E. A pilot study of AIDS education and counseling of high-risk adolescents in an office setting. J Adolesc Health. 1993;14(1):115–119. [PubMed] 71. McCusker J, Stoddard AM, Hindin RN, Garfield FB, Frost R. Changes in HIV risk behavior following alternative residential programs of drug abuse treatment and AIDS education. Ann Epidemiol. 1996;6(2):119–125. [PubMed] 72. McMahon RC, Malow RM, Jennings TE, Gomez CJ. Effects of a cognitive-behavioral HIV prevention intervention among HIV negative male substance abusers in VA residential treatment. AIDS Educ Prev. 2001;13(1):91–107. [PubMed]
73. Metzler CW, Biglan A, Noell J, Ary DV, Ochs L. A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents in STD clinics. Behav Ther. 2000;31(1):27–54.
74. Nyamathi AM, Flaskerud J, Bennett C, Leake B, Lewis C. Evaluation of two AIDS education programs for impoverished Latina women. AIDS Educ Prev. 1994;6(4):296–309. [PubMed] 75. Nyamathi A, Leake B, Flaskerud J, Lewis C, Bennett C. Outcomes of specialized and traditional AIDS counseling programs for impoverished women of color. Res Nurs Health. 1993;16:11–21. [PubMed] 76. Nyamathi A, Stein J. Assessing the impact of HIV reduction counseling in impoverished African American women: A structural equations approach. AIDS Educ Prev. 1997;9(3):253–273. [PubMed] 77. Nyamathi A, Flaskerud J, Keenan C, Leake B. Effectiveness of a specialized vs. traditional AIDS education program attended by homeless and drug-addicted women alone or with supportive persons. AIDS Educ Prev. 1998;10(5):433–466. [PubMed] 78. Nyamathi A, Flaskerud JH, Leake B, Dixon EL, Lu A. Evaluating the impact of peer, nurse case-managed, and standard HIV risk-reduction programs on psychosocial and health-promoting behavioral outcomes among homeless women. Res Nurs Health. 2001;24(5):410–422. [PubMed] 79. O’Leary A, Ambrose TK, Raffaelli M, et al. Effects of an HIV risk reduction project on sexual risk behavior of low-income STD patients. AIDS Educ Prev. 1998;10(6):483–492. [PubMed] 80. Otto Salaj LL, Kelly JA, Stevenson LY, Hoffmann R, Kalichman SC. Outcomes of a randomized small-group HIV prevention intervention trial for people with serious mental illness. Community Ment Health J. 2001;37(2):123–144. [PubMed] 81. Pauw J, Ferrie J, Villegas RR, Martinez JM, Gorter A, Egger M. A controlled HIV/AIDS-related health education programme in Managua, Nicaragua. AIDS. 1996;10:537–544. [PubMed] 82. Pearlman DN, Camberg L, Wallace LJ, Symons P, Finison L. Tapping youth as agents for change: Evaluation of a peer leadership HIV/AIDS intervention. J Adolesc Health. 2002;31(1):31–39. [PubMed]
83. Peeler CM. An analysis of the effects of a course designed to reduce the frequency of high-risk sexual behavior and heavy drinking [dissertation] Pullman, Washington: Washington State University; 2000.
84. Pereira LM. Risk and relationship: Examining the outcomes of couples-based HIV prevention among low-income men of color in heterosexual relationships [Dissertation] Columbia University; 2001.
85. Picciano JF, Roffman RA, Kalichman SC, Rutledge SE, Berghuis JP. A telephone based brief intervention using motivational enhancement to facilitate HIV risk reduction among MSM: A pilot study. AIDS Behav. 2001;5(3):251–262.
86. Reikowski DJ. A behavior and cognitive intervention for AIDS prevention [Dissertation] School of Education; Stanford University: 1994.
87. Roffman R, Picciano J, Ryan R, et al. HIV-prevention group counseling delivered by telephone: An efficacy trial with gay and bisexual men. AIDS Behav. 1997;1(2):137–154.
88. Roffman RA, Stephens RS, Curtin L, et al. Relapse prevention as an intervention model for HIV risk reduction in gay and bisexual men. AIDS Educ Prev. 1998;10(1):1–18. [PubMed]
89. Rosengard C. Safer-sex behavior change in college students: A theory-driven strategy for designing AIDS-risk reduction interventions. University of Connecticut; 1994.
90. Rosser BRS, Bockting WO, Rugg DL, et al. A randomized controlled intervention trial of a sexual health approach to long-term HIV risk reduction for men who have sex with men: Effects of the intervention on unsafe sexual behavior. AIDS Educ Prev. 1999;14(Supplement A):59–71. [PubMed] 91. Rosser BRS, Bockting WO, Rugg DL, et al. A randomized controlled intervention trial of a sexual health approach to long-term HIV risk reduction for men who have sex with men: Effects of the intervention on unsafe sexual behavior. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14(Suppl3):59–71. [PubMed] 92. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Koopman C, Haignere C, Davies M. Reducing HIV sexual risk behaviors among runaway adolescents. J Am Med Assoc. 1991;266(9):1237–1241. [PubMed] 93. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Murphy DA, Fernandez I, Srinivasan S. A brief HIV intervention for adolescents and young adults. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1998;68(4):553–564. [PubMed] 94. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Van Rossem V, Lee M, Gwadz M, Koopman C. Reductions in HIV risk among runaway youth. 1998. Unpublished. [PubMed]
95. Sangiwa G, Balmer D, Furlong C, Grinstead OS, Kamenga MC, Coates T. Voluntary HIV counseling & testing (VCT) reduced risk behavior in developing countries: Results from the voluntary counseling and testing study. XII International AIDS Conference; 1998 June-July; Geneva.
96. Saxon AJ, Calsyn DA. Alcohol use and high-risk behavior by intravenous drug users in an AIDS education paradigm. J Stud Alcohol. 1991;53:611–618. [PubMed]
97. Sherry J. AIDS education and adolescent sexual self-efficacy and behavior [dissertation] New York: Fordham University; 1997.
98. Simpson DD, Camacho LM, Vogtsberger KN, et al. Reducing AIDS risks through community outreach interventions for drug injections. Psychol Addict Behav. 1994;8(2):86–101.
99. Slonim Nevo V. The effect of HIV/AIDS prevention intervention for Israeli adolescents in residential centers: Results at 12-month follow-up. Soc Work Res. 2001;25(2):71–88.
100. Smith MU, Dane FC, Archer ME, Devereaux RS, Katner HP. Students together against negative decisions (STAND): Evaluation of a school-based sexual risk reduction intervention in the rural south. AIDS Educ Prev. 2000;12(1):49–70. [PubMed] 101. Sorenson JL, London J, Hetizman C, et al. Psychoeducational group approach: HIV risk reduction in drug users. AIDS Educ Prev. 1994;6(2):95–112. [PubMed] 102. Speizer IS, Tambashe BO, Tegang SP. An evaluation of the "Entre Nous Jeunes" peer-educator program for adolescents in Cameroon. Stud Fam Plann. 2001;32(4):339–351. [PubMed] 103. St Lawrence J, Brasfield T, Jefferson K, Alleyne E, O’Bannon R. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce African American adolescents’ risk for HIV education. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995;63(2):221–237. [PubMed] 104. Stanton BF, Li X, Galbraith J, Feigelman S, Kaljee L. Sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, and pregnancy prevention. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:17–24. [PubMed] 105. Sterk CE, Theall KP, Elifson KW, Kidder D. HIV risk reduction among African- American women who inject drugs: A randomized controlled trial. AIDS Behav. 2003;7(1):73–86. [PubMed] 106. Sterk CE, Theall KP, Elifson KW. Effectiveness of a risk reduction intervention among African American women who use crack cocaine. AIDS Educ Prev. 2003;15(1):15–32. [PubMed] 107. Suarez-Al-Adam M, Raffaelli M, O’Leary A. Influence of abuse and partner hypermasuclinity on the sexual behavior of Latinas: Results from an HIV preventive intervention. Womens Health. 1998:1–25. [PubMed] 108. Swanson JM, Dibble SL, Chapman L. Effects of psycho-educational interventions on sexual health risks and psycho-social adaptation in young adults with genital herpes. J Adv Nurs. 1999;29(4):840–851. [PubMed]
109. Thomas N. The effectiveness of a peer-led, self-management program on reducing AIDS risk in college students [dissertation] Pullman, Washington: Washington State University; 1997.
110. Thompson SC, Kyle D, Swan J, Thomas C, Vrungos S. Increasing condom use by undermining perceived invulnerability to HIV. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14(6):505–514. [PubMed]
111. Tudiver F, Myers T, Kurtz RG, et al. The talking sex project. Eval Health Prof. 1992;15(4):26–42.
112. Turner J, Korpita E, Mohn LWH. Reduction in sexual risk behaviors among college students following a comprehensive health education intervention. J Am Coll Health. 1993;41:187–193. [PubMed] 113. Turner JC, Garrison CZ, Korpita E, et al. Promoting responsible sexual behavior through a college freshman seminar. AIDS Educ Prev. 1994;6(3):266–277. [PubMed] 114. Walter HJ, Vaughan RD. AIDS risk reduction among a multiethnic sample of urban high school students. J Am Med Assoc. 1993;270(6):725–730. [PubMed]
115. Warren WK, King AJC. Social Program Evaluation Group. Development and evaluation of an AIDS/STD/Sexuality program for grade 9 students. Kingston: Queen’s University; Jun, 1994. NHRDP #6613–1502 and 6613–1503.
116. Weeks K, Levy S, Gordon A, Handler A, Perhats C, Flay B. Does parental involvement make a difference? The impact of parent interactive activities on students in a school-based AIDS prevention program. AIDS Educ Prev. 1997;9(Supplement A):90–106. [PubMed] 117. Wenger NS, Linn LS, Epstein M, Shapiro MF. Reduction of high-risk sexual behavior among heterosexuals undergoing HIV antibody testing: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Public Health. 1991;81(12):1580–1585. [PubMed] 118. Wenger NS, Greenberg JM, Hilborne LH, Kusseling F, Mangotich M, Shaprio MF. Effect of HIV antibody testing and AIDS education on communication about HIV risk and sexual behavior. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(11):905–911. [PubMed] 119. Wight D, Raab GM, Henderson M, et al. Limits of teacher delivered sex education: Interim behavioral outcomes from randomized trial. Br Med J. 2002;324(7351):1430–1433. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
120. Wilson D, Zondo S, Lavell S. An experimental evaluation of a high fear AIDS education tool: A colour atlas of AIDS in the tropics. International Conference on AIDS; 1992 July 19–24; Netherlands.
121. Wilson D, Mparadzi A, Lavelle S. An experimental comparison of two AIDS prevention interventions among young Zimbabweans. J Soc Psychol. 1992;132(3):415–417. [PubMed]
122. Xiaoming S, Yong W, Choi KH, Lurie P, Mandel J. Integrating HIV prevention education into existing family planning services: Results of a controlled trial of a community-level intervention for young adults in rural China. AIDS Behav. 2000;4(1):103–110.
123. Zemke SE. The effects of leading an HIV intervention group: Do peer leaders practice what they preach? [dissertation] Pullman, Washington: Washington State University; 1997.
124. Zimmers E, Privette G, Lowe RH, Chappa F. Increasing use of the female condom through video instruction. Percept Mot Skills. 1999;88:1071–1077. [PubMed] 125. Crepaz N, Hart TA, Marks G. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and sexual risk behavior. J Amer Med Assoc. 2004;292:224–236. [PubMed] 126. Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Johnson BT, Bickham NL. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: A meta-analytic review of published research, 1985–1997. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:1397–1405. [PubMed] 127. Johnson BT, Carey MP, Marsh KL, Levin KD, Scott-Sheldon LAJ. Interventions to reduce sexual risk for the human immunodeficiency virus in adolescents, 1985–2000. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:381–388. [PubMed] 128. Fishbein M. The role of theory in HIV prevention. AIDS Care. 2000;12:273–278. [PubMed] 129. Fishbein M, Hennessy M, Kamb M, Bolan GA, Hoxworth T, Iatesta M, Rhodes F, Zenilman JM. Using intervention theory to model factors influencing behavior change: Project RESPECT. Eval & the Health Prof. 2001;24:363–384. [PubMed]
130. Johnson BT. DSTAT 1.10: Software for the meta-analytic review of research literatures. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1993.
131. Sanchez-Meca J, Marin-Martinez F, Chacon-Moscoso S. Effect-size indices for dichotomized outcomes in meta-analysis. Psychol Methods. 2003;8:448–467. [PubMed]
132. Hedges LV, Olkin I. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando: Academic Press; 1995.
133. Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. Practical Meta-Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2001.
134. Johnson BT, Eagly AH. Quantitative synthesis of social psychological research. In: Reis HT, Judd CM, editors. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2000. pp. 496–528.
135. Kalichman SC, Carey MP, Johnson BT. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infection: A meta-analytic review and critique of the theory-based intervention outcome literature. Ann Beh Med. 1996;18:6–15.
136. Logan TK, Cole J, Leukefeld C. Women, sex, and HIV: Social and contextual factors, meta analysis of published interventions, and implications for practice and research. Psych Bull. 2002;128:851–885. [PubMed] 137. Mullen PD, Ramirez G, Strouse D, Hedges LV, Sogolow E. Meta-analysis of the effects of behavioral HIV prevention interventions on the sexual risk behavior of sexually experienced adolescents in controlled studies in the United States. J Ac Imm Def Syn. 2002;30:94–105. [PubMed] 138. Neumann MS, Johnson WD, Semaan S, Flores SA, Peersman G, Hedges LV, Sogolow E. Review and meta-analysis of HIV prevention intervention research for heterosexual adult populations in the United States. J Acq Immun Def Synd. 2002;30:106–117. [PubMed] 139. Johnson BT, Carey MP, Chaudoir SR, Reid AE. Sexual risk reduction for persons living with HIV: Research synthesis of randomized controlled trials, 1993–2004. J AIDS. in press. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 141. Carey MP, Braaten L, Jaworski B, Durant L, Forsyth AD. HIV and AIDS relative to other health, social, and relationship concerns among low-income urban women. J Womens Health. 1999;8:657–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 142. Kalichman SC, Cain D. Perceptions of local HIV/AIDS prevalence and risks for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections: Preliminary study of intuitive epidemiology. Ann Behav Med. 2005;29:100–105. [PubMed]
143. Fishbein M, Triandis HC, Kanfer FH, Becker M, Middlestadt SE, Eichler A. Factors influencing behavior and behavior change. In: Baum A, Revenson TA, Singer JE, editors. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2001. pp. 3–17.
144. Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York: Guilford; 2001.
145. Carpenter MJ, Hughes JR, Solomon LJ, Callas PW. Both smoking reduction with nicotine replacement therapy and motivational advice increase future cessation among smokers unmotivated to quit. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:371–81. [PubMed] 146. Borsari B, Carey KB. Effects of a brief motivational intervention with college student drinkers. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:728–33. [PubMed] 147. Dunn C, Deroo L, Rivara FP. The use of brief interventions adapted from motivational interviewing across behavioral domains: A systematic review. Addiction. 2001;96:1725–42. [PubMed] 148. Tevyaw TO, Monti PM. Motivational enhancement and other brief interventions for adolescent substance abuse: Foundations, applications and evaluations. Addiction. 2004;99:63–75. [PubMed] 149. Carey MP, Braaten LS, Maisto SA, Gleason JR, Forsyth AD, Durant LE, Jaworski BC. Using information, motivational enhancement, and skills training to reduce the risk of HIV infection for low-income urban women: A second randomized clinical trial. Health Psychol. 2000;19:3–11. [PubMed] 150. Belcher L, Kalichman S, Topping M, Smith S, Emshoff J, Norris F, Nurss J. A randomized trial of a brief HIV risk reduction counseling intervention for women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66:856–61. [PubMed]
151. Kalichman SC. Preventing AIDS: A Sourcebook for Behavioral Interventions. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1998.
152. Kelly JA. Changing HIV risk behavior: Practical strategies. New York: Guilford Press; 1995.
153. Kalichman SC, Cain D, Weinhardt LS, Benotsch E, Presser K, Zweben A, Bjodstrup B, Swain G. Experimental components analysis of brief theory-based HIV-AIDS risk reduction counseling for sexually transmitted infection patients. Health Psychol. 2005;24:198–208. [PubMed]